Artificial Intelligence

ArtificialIntelligence

Tableof Contents

2.0: Applications of 4

3.0: Psychological and sociological impacts of 4

3.1: Labor employment problems 5

3.2: Changes in the social structure 5

3.3: psychological effects 5

3.3.1: Impacts on thinking and ideas 5

3.3.2: Psychological threat 6

3.4: The dangers of artificial intelligence 7

3.5: impact on human culture 7

3.5.1: Expansion of human knowledge 7

3.5.2: Advancement of human language 8

3.5.3: Artificial intelligence influence mental and cultural life 8

3.5.4: Impact of artificial intelligence on Human 8

4.0: Artificial intelligence technology in its cultural context 9

4.1: Universals in culture 9

4.2: The role of the technology 10

4.3: Artificial intelligent in its own culture 10

4.4: Imparting artificial intelligence culture 10

5.0: Media influence on artificial intelligence 11

6.0: Conclusion 11

References 13

ArtificialIntelligence

Artificialintelligence makes computer programs look as if behavingintelligently. This is the fundamental objective of the computerprogramming. The prevailing research on artificial intelligent isundertaking to come up with more intelligent computer that is easierto use. It is good to know that computer programs are designed forthe purpose of solving particular problem through a logical means. Inorder to know more about artificial intelligent, it is important toknow the definition of the intelligence. Although the termintelligence is directly applied to the computer, it is an ambiguousterm just like other popular expressions. It is impossible todetermine our progress in the area of artificial intelligence,without knowing how wisdom is exploited in a computer. Fortunately,computer science has made hope in the realization of these goalsbecause artificial intelligent experts has developed purposes, goalsand new technology in this area. The artificial intelligent systemsare not meant to swindle a human judgment or to become a façadeunavoidably desirable.

Mostsignificantly, a computer program can provide an illusion of humanintelligence, when it is designed to rationally respond to a greatnumber of probable and improbable scenarios. This is quite similar tohow rational beings judge human wisdom, people’s capability tosolve prevailing problems and cope up with various situations.However, computer programs designed using weak artificialintelligence reduces user’s intervention intent. Therefore, thedesign of the computer program is carried out depending on thethinking of human brain. However, artificial intelligent has a lotof impacts on the psychological and sociological aspects of humanbeings. This paper will also discuss the technology of the artificialintelligence in its cultural context and its application, as well asmedia influence on the artificial intelligence.

Applications of ArtificialIntelligence

Thisis an emerging technology that is applicable to numerous areas, andits coverage is ever growing. When applying the knowledge ofartificial intelligence, it is important to note that the first stepof this technology development involves automated reasoning thatrefers to a conversion process that receives encrypted knowledge fromthe real world as inputs and relays computed output based on thatknowledge. Currently, automated reasoning can be applied in videogames, Mars rover, and air-traffic control processes. Additionally,artificial intelligence is now applied in motor vehicle industries tocome up with self-driven cars (with human drivers). Perceptibly, theskills required for these artificial intelligent programs arenormally based on natural intelligence. Most importantly, theresearch on the nature of the computing devices continuouslyenlightens the artificial intelligent expertise to keep on developingmore intelligent devices (Maglogiannis,2007).

Psychological and sociologicalimpacts of

Althoughartificial intelligence brings economic gains to its creators, usersand sellers, simultaneously, like any other novel technology itsemergence brings about problems and consequently, upset people(Brown, 2007). Thesociological issues that brought by the development and use of thisemerging technology include but not restricted to:

Laboremployment problems

Ithas been found that artificial intelligence can replace human beingsin various mental works. For instance, intelligent systems can usedin place of doctors or managers for diagnosis, decision-making, oreven treatment of patients. However, this emerging technology hascompelled people to change their work or even causing unemployment toquite large number of educated people. Therefore, application ofartificial intelligence in the engineering and science and technologyfield, people are exempted from information-making processes such asdiagnosis, planning, decision-making, and many people are forced intoother working field (Bergler,2008).

Changesin the social structure

Althoughartificial intelligent machines can do varieties of labor, people areworried that they might lead to social problems. In the last decades,the social structure of human beings and machines was changing quiteslowly. However, this social structure will be replaced by socialstructure of human beings and intelligent machines. One example ofintelligent machine is the intelligent robots. It is feared that mostof workers such as doctors, nurses, hotel attendants, traffic police,and even office secretaries will taken by intelligent robots. Soon,people will be compelled to learn to co-exist with intelligentmachines hence making social structure to become accustomed to such achange (Bergler, 2008).

PsychologicaleffectsImpactson thinking and ideas

Artificialintelligence development will influence the way people think and evenchange the existing traditional concepts. For instance, theconventional knowledge is normally printed in magazines or books thatare fixed and difficult to change. However, artificial intelligenceknowledge is constantly expanded, revised and updated. For example,when expert who uses the intelligent systems begin to believe thatthe decisions and judgments made by such systems are credible, theyare reluctant to enhance their brains, slack and lose theirobligations on problem solving, and become dependent on machines. Itis believed that students who are over-dependent on calculators facerisk of deteriorating their computing power and thinking capacity.Therefore, when designing intelligent systems, it is imperative toconsider these issues and try to involve users in problem solvinginitiatives so as to engage their intelligence in problem solvingprocesses (Pirrone,2011).

Psychologicalthreat

Itis true that human beings have emotions, spirit and perception, asopposed to machines. If someday, people begin to believe that thesemachines were capable of behaving and thinking just human, they wouldfeel threatened and become disappointed. People are worrying that, inthe near future, the artificial intelligence will surpass naturalintelligence and subsequently, become slaves to intelligent systemsand machines. However, there has been a controversy in thinkingbetween the theologians, philosophers, and other people about thecorrelation between human spirit and artificial intelligence. As faras artificial intelligence is concerned, human beings are most likelyto use Artificial intelligence systems to plan for their future.Artificial intelligence as new emerging technology is much welcomedby some people, although some of people are reluctant to appreciateits perceived gains (Pirrone,2011).

Thedangers of artificial intelligence

Thegreatest and imminent danger of any emerging technology is to losecontrol of it since it can fall into hands of people wishing toexploit it and use it against humanity. For example, the discovery ofgunpowder (mixture of salt peter, carbon and sulfur) from China wasused by the foreigners for the manufacture of firearms that were inturn used to acquire colonies in the most parts of the world,chemical science was exploited to develop chemical weapons,biological achievements could be used to make biological weapons, andfinally, nuclear physics was exploited to manufacture of nuclearweapons that has been used to wipe out humanity. Therefore, it is notsurprising that people are worrying that intelligent robots willsomeday become their master and consequently, enslave humanbeings-their creators (Pirrone,2011).

ArtificialIntelligence impact on human culture

Althoughthe artificial intelligence is perceived to negatively chance the wayhuman beings think, it may also have positive impacts on humanculture.

Expansionof human knowledge

Inthe course of enhancing our existing knowledge, scientists andphilosophers, as well as artificial intelligent experts, have thechance of resolving vagueness and inconsistency of the existingknowledge. Such an effort may lead to a particular improvement ofknowledge to effortlessly infer more fascinating new truth. Forinstance, in the course of studying and learning how robots works, itis imperative to introduce new method that has formalized andlegitimacy of knowledge that includes inductive inference,‘recognition,’ and rationality. Therefore, there is a possibilityof creating a ‘knowledge refinery’ that can be used to enhancethe development of a first-rate knowledge database throughestablishment of the artificial intelligent research institutes (Shi,2011).

Advancementof human language

Theadvancement of the human language is attributed to the developmentand evolution of human kind. Adoption of artificial intelligence mayplay a critical role in human intelligent operations. With regard tothe linguistic way of thinking, language is an inter-media way ofexpressing human thoughts. Linguistic methods can be applied instudying principles of thinking that can be incorporated intoartificial intelligence, although the subconscious and thepreconscious thinking processes can only be implicated. Therefore, itis possible to apply semantics, syntax and any other components oflanguage through artificial intelligence to advance the know-how ofthe natural language (Languageand Technology Conference, &amp Vetulani, 2011).

Artificialintelligence influence mental and cultural life

Asan emerging technology, artificial intelligence has influencedcultural life of people. Therefore, the prevailing intellectualconsoles may be expanded as a means of entertainment and culture withhigher intelligence. For this reason, people have begun to researchon virtual technology. Additionally virtual systems have capabilityof reconstructing the scene using multimedia technology. Thismultimedia technology has a far-reaching effect on communicationtechnology, advertising, graphics, and social education field. Forexample, adoption of this technology by the media improves theappearance of TV, letting people have much more lively entertainmentenvironment (Hanson,2007).

Impactof artificial intelligence on Human

Computerscientists’ efforts have continued to have impact on humans. Theethical and moral repercussions of artificial intelligence areapparent. There is an argument that many people are still poor andunemployed and thus, it not plausible to develop artificial laborersthat have capability of thinking autonomously. Therefore, there is nogood reason for creating such machines that can argue with humansabout issues (Hanson,2007).

Artificialintelligence technology in its cultural context

Whentrying to conceptualize anything, people might wonder ‘whatconcept?’ or ‘why this concept?’ even with an important conceptsuch as artificial intelligence that varies with intellectual andcultural context. In this case, the activities of artificialintelligence field loom large since the emphasis is focused on theartificial intelligence from its practitioners’ perspectives.Therefore, the culture of artificial intelligence differs from humanculture in terms of universality (Kevin,2013).

Universalsin culture

Mostsignificantly, human culture is as a result of human universals andlocal environmental impacts, or combination of both. Therefore, humanuniversal of culture comprises ideas such as legends, myths, rules,daily routines, body adornment, and ideas of luck and precedent, aswell as manufacture and use of tools. This implies that allcircumstances of human culture have different values concerning thesehuman universals. It surprising especially when the concepts of humanuniversals is applied to the constructs of culture for artificialintelligence as it give suggestions that in some circumstances humanculture has a causal relation with the physical framework of mind orthe pervasiveness of particular genetic characteristics. Therefore,any effort at a consistent robot culture would need a steady natureacross all circumstances of robots. It seems impractical to achievethis goal because local differences in human culture will certainlybias certain higher level constituents of ‘robot nature’ (Kevin,2013)

Therole of the technology

Necessityis regarded as mother of innovation, and innovations undoubtedly leadto changes in our lives. Indeed, the incredulously fast developmentof human society that has lead to the emergence of our primateancestors cannot only be explained using evolution, but can also beexplained using cultural transmission. When technology moves from oneculture to another its effects are different but greatly homogenizing(Maglogiannis,2007).

Artificialintelligent in its own culture

Itis important to note that, in our case, robots will become highlydisturbing as they will become essential component of our cultures,and intelligent robots will constantly become exposed to prevailingand emerging technologies that could possibly change their ownculture. One can envisage a newly formed artificial intelligentculture that has weak ties to any prevailing culture swiftly adoptinga varied sampling of other important cultures. There are numerouscontradictions that exist between different cultures andconsequently, intelligent robots would have a challenge of decidingwhich values are best to adopt. In order to support the culture of athinking system or machine, artificial intelligence practitionersdepend upon the existing works of social psychologists. By learningand studying the results of experiments in human culture, thesepractitioners gain insight into probable benefits and bottlenecks inestablishment of an intelligent robot culture (Kevin,2013).

Impartingartificial intelligence culture

Forthe purpose of exploring the processes of cultural change andtransmission for a thinking or intelligent machine, it is imperativeto acquire principles of social psychology. The generic researchconcerning parent-child value diffusion or transmission does notcompletely apply to an intelligent robot culture, but it can offerinsights for comparing options within cultural transmission. Thus, itis important for the robot culture to embody the notion of negativefeedback. This is because in transmitting value between robots theleast ranked values remain unsuitable. In such an argument, theprocess through which people may avoid value choices or mistakes thatare found to be negative for creators of robots can be transmitted toa robotic intelligence (Hanson,2007).

Mediainfluence on Inour contemporary society, intelligent robots are featured in Tvseries, Cartoons, Shows, and movies. The theme of roboticintelligence keeps on fascinating science fiction. Media is rapidlyinfluencing our perception towards artificial intelligence. Forexample, the manner in which robots are displayed in movies and themanner in which they are designed, it is possible to recognize thegap between the achievable reality and human aspirations. Therefore,through media people around the Globe have varied levels of exposureto robotic intelligence because of the media coverage on the topic.Jetson series is an example of Robot that was shown on television(Bar-Cohen&amp Breazeal, 2003).ConclusionThroughoutpopular culture and history, intelligent robots have reflectedcultural and social issues, and the mood, as well as technology oftheir era. For example, during the Cold war, intelligent robots wereperceived as intimidating forces, but in subsequent years reflectedthe continuity and the conflict between machines and humans.Therefore, robots have functioned as servants and, at the same time,as oppressors of humanity, depicting the good and evil impacts. Manypeople have never seen a robot with their own eyes, but theirexperiences are influenced by media such as literature and movies, aswell as Television series. Therefore, media has affected thereactions and perception of people to real robots. Most people areworrying about this emerging technology due to perceived loss ofjobs.References

Bar-Cohen,Y., &amp Breazeal, C. (2003).&nbspBiologicallyinspired intelligent robots.Bellingham, Wash: SPIE Press.

Bergler,S. (2008).Advancesin artificial intelligence: 21st Conference of the Canadian Societyfor Computational Studies of Intelligence, Canadian AI 2008, Windsor,Canada, May 28-30, 2008 : proceedings.Berlin: Springer.

Brown,R. C. (2007).&nbspAgeneration of excellence: A history of the Canadian Institute forAdvanced Research.Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Hanson,F. A. (2007).&nbspThetrouble with culture: How computers are calming the culture wars.Albany: State University of New York Press.

Kevin,W.(2013).: The Basics. Routledge

Languageand Technology Conference, &amp Vetulani, Z. (2011).&nbspHumanlanguage technology: Challenges for computer science and linguistics: 4th Language and Technology Conference : LTC 2009, Poznan, Poland,November 6-8, 2009 : revised selected papers.Heidelberg: Springer.

Maglogiannis,I. G. (2007).&nbspEmergingartificial intelligence applications in computer engineering: Realword AI systems with applications in eHealth, HCI, informationretrieval and pervasive technologies.Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Pirrone,R., Sorbello, F., &amp Congress of the Italian Association for on and Human-OrientedComputing, AI*IA. (2011).&nbspAI*IA2011: Around Man and Beyond : XIIth Congressof the Italian Association for , Palermo,Italy, September 15-17, 2011 : proceedings.Berlin [etc.: Springer.

Shi,Z. (2011).&nbspAdvancedartificial intelligence.Singapore: World Scientific.