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August24, 2014.

Bone disease

Signs, symptoms and complication

Main Distinguishing aspect

Method of Treatment


The disease has no unique symptoms but it is characterized by high risks of bone fractures

-The common symptom is fragile bones


-In Osteoporosis, fractures are common and occur without any symptoms

-The fractures occur mostly in the spine, wrist, shoulder and the hip and the patient may experience vertebral collapse.

-In this case the patient experiences a sudden back pain

Fall Risks

Victims with Osteoporosis have increased falling risks which is compounded by impaired eyesight, dementia and balance disorder among others

The main unique difference of this disease is reduced bone mass that lead to potential threats of fractures.

Treatment is done using medications such as the Bisphosphonates


-Patients of Osteomalacia develop weak bones, bone pain in the pelvic, spine and the leg bone.

-The patient experiences muscle weakness, hypocalcaemia and compressed vertebrae

-In addition, the patient may experience pelvic flattening.

In other cases there is easy fracturing, bone softening and bending of bones.

-Patients are unable to spread their arms or ribs and have difficulties getting up or climbing stairs.

Osteomalacia is unique in that it is characterized by softening of bones due to low minerals

The disease condition is well treated using weekly intake of vitamin D and sometimes treatment is done using injections or oral doses of vitamin D

Rheumatoid arthritis

This is a chronic disease and a systemic inflammatory disorder. The joint swells and become tender and painful. In addition, inflammation occurs in the lungs (Henwood &amp Binkovitz, 2009).

Unlike other bone diseases, rheumatoid arthritis affects the joints and the skin, lungs and kidneys

Treatment is done using non-pharmacological and pharmacological methods. Non-pharmacological treatment involves physical therapy, nutritional therapy and others.

Pharmacological methods involve the use of pain killers. However, these treatments does not stop the disease


-The disease is characterized by recurrent of acute inflammatory arthritis. The joints become tender and swollen.

-Painful swelling occurs in the knees, wrists, heels and fingers.

-In other cases patients’ experiences back pain, high fever and fatigue.

-Main distinguishing aspect from other bone diseases is recurrent joint swellings and presence of uric acid in the joints.

-Treatment is done using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NASIDs).

-other medication drugs focus on reducing the level of uric acids.


-This is a degenerative joint disease and lead to degradation of the joints.

Main symptoms include tenderness, joint pain, stiffness and locking of joints

Osteoarthritis is degenerative and leads to gross loss of cartilage and other joint tissues

-Treatment is done using a combination of pharmacological treatments, exercises and lifestyle modification.

-Surgery can be done to replace joints and improve the patient’s life (Adler, 2000).


AdlerP. C. (2000). Bone diseases: Macroscopic, Histological &ampRadiological Diagnosis of Structural changes in the skeleton.Germany: Springer Science &amp Business Media.

HenwoodMJ., Binkovitz L. (2009). Update on pediatric bone health. TheJournal of the American Osteopathic Association109(1): 5–12.