Causes and Effects of Abortion


Columbia Southern University


Abortion may be performed either if an infant puts the life of amother at risk or if a fetus has hereditary anomalies. The two arethe most common medical reasons that can make healthcareprofessionals recommend expectant mothers to undergo an abortion. Onthe other hand, a woman can decide to abort if she conceivesunintentionally after engaging in unprotected sex either willingly orforced coitus such as rape. This research weighs both arguments fromthe pro-life (abortion oppositionists) and the pro-choice (abortionsupporters). The discussion is anchored at a moral standpoint,whereby, an embryo’s right to live mainly depends on the mother`schoice. Pro-choice argue terminating a pregnancy in the earlydevelopment stages is moral. On the contrary, the pro-life contendsthat a human being is formed right after a woman conceives. Thisimplies that terminating a pregnancy during any growth stage istantamount to murder. Therefore, a person who has conducted anabortion should be subjected to similar punishment a criminal wouldget for killing another human.

Abortion refers to artificial and deliberate termination of animmature pregnancy. It can be induced using prescription pills ortaking herbal concoctions such as tealeaves. In the recent past,abortion rate has increased significantly after introduction ofseveral safe and affordable abortion methods. Women abort because ofvarious reasons such as social, financial, or physical healthproblems. Pregnancy termination can affect both social and physicalwellbeing of women negatively. In the United States, abortion isillegal in some states such as Arizona, Idaho, Indiana, and Iowaamong others. However, some states have either completely banned orplaced limitations that prevent extensive pregnancy termination suchas Alabama and Alaska. In fact, abortion is a murder and should berestricted to patients experiencing serious health issues.

Abortion is rampant. Social problems such as forced sex andunprotected sex are the main causes of the high abortion rate. Womenin many countries are vulnerable to various forms insecurity such assexual molestation by either family members or strangers. Incest orassault based pregnancies are common reasons that make many women optto terminate their pregnancies. However, women that often engage inunprotected sex are major victims of abortion. Since crime rate ishigh in many countries, several conceive from incest relationships ofbecause of assault (Boonin, 2011).

Knowledge can empower women to refrain from abortions. Solinger(2010), the author of the book “Abortion wars: A half century ofstruggle” affirms that better education and empowerment for womenwould mean that they are more aware of the choices they have toprevent pregnancy. In addition, the author asserts that there shouldbe enough support available for women who get pregnant so that theyget encouraged in keeping and raising their own babies. Moreover, theauthor argues that adoption is not a solution to abortion (Solinger,2010).

Easy access to abortion services prevents women from exercisingcaution during sexual intercourse. Incest can be characterized assexual relations involving closely related people that their marriageis illegitimate or prohibited by custom. There is a probability ofproducing deformed offspring since the parents have close bloodrelations. The greater parts of the women, on the other hand, chooseto have an abortion since the pregnancy may affect their future andcurrent lives (Shrage, 2003). Additionally, there is proof that manywomen experience unplanned pregnancies in both developed anddeveloping nations. In the US and some Eastern European nations wherethere is easy access to abortion services, and many pregnancies areunexpected, several women choose to solve the issue through abortion(McDonagh, 2010).

Carrying a pregnancy to maturity is strenuous thus it hurts giving achild to adoption. For a better understanding of why women chooseabortion over adoption, Laurie Shrage gives an explanation in herbook “Abortion and social responsibility” (2003). In this book,the author demonstrates that for some women, having an early abortionwould be less upsetting than experiencing nine months of pregnancy,and then hand their children over to somebody else for adoption.Besides, the author clarifies that keeping a pregnancy implies thatthey will have to tell their guardians or partners about thepregnancy. This may cause conflicts if the victims are young or in aharsh relationship (Boonin, 2011).

A woman can decide to keep or remove fetus because she has freedomover her body. Solinger (2010) asserts that many moral issues emergefrom the topic of abortion. However, according to the author, theprinciple ethical issue is whether fetus removal is taking of humanlife, and whose responsibility is it to decide on whether to allow orreject the abortion as an option. According to the findings of thisessay, the most critical ideas covering abortion are The Principal ofIndividual Freedom and the Value of Human Life (Solinger, 2010).

The Value of Life alludes to the thought that a human being’s lifeis an essential creation. Each encounters his or her life in aremarkable manner, and nobody can live another person’s life. Everyperson must be dealt with as a special being. Nevertheless, this doesnot dispose of the idea that ending a person’s life is impossible.Instead, it should be done with serious justification. Subsequently,on the case of abortion, it is deemed ethically wrong to terminatefetuses’ life, and yet some family planning methods such asemergency pills are similar to conducting an abortion because theydestroy forming embryos (McDonagh, 2010).

Abortion is a personal choice. The Principle of Individual Freedomstates that people must have the flexibility to choose theirparticular ways and method for being good inside the outline of theother four principals. Since no individual or circumstance isprecisely like another, there must be some opportunity for thoseindividuals to manage the diverse decisions in a way that best suitsthem. If a pregnancy can hinder an individual from achieving theirpersonal goals such as a career or education, they can then terminatea pregnancy (Reiman, 2009).

There are two perspectives concerning the issue of abortion. The mainperspective is that of &quotPro-Life,&quot who eventually acceptsthat the fetus has an unconditional right to life, and this is whereValue of Life Principal emerges. According to Reiman, the author of“Abortion and the Ways We Value Human Life” (2009), there arestages in a fetus development that strengthen this conviction, theseincorporate the accompanying by the third week, the embryonicorganism is developing different parts and after a week, its heartstarts to pulsate. Proceeding to week five, divisions of the mindoccur, and the advancement of the eyes and appendage buds show up. Bythe seventh and eighth weeks, sexual attributes might be perceived,and there are some lower cerebrum life structures, and the embryo hascreated some reflex responses (Reiman, 2009).

Since life starts at conception, abortion is tantamount to murder asit involves taking away a human life. Expert life`s contentions arefocused around the estimation that the right to life is absolute,particularly the right of unborn life, and its purity. Consequently,every unborn &quotfetus&quot ought to be viewed as human and getall rights merited from the minute of origin onwards. Whether peopleaccept that the fetus is a human being or not, it is far from beingobviously true that a lady has a moral obligation to the fetus.Additionally, the Pro-Life advocates are more concerned withabortions and pregnancies since they feel there is somethingextremely human about the fetus as its development proceeds (Reiman,2009).

According to Boonin, the author of the book titled “A defense ofabortion” (2011), there are other numerous issues relating toabortion, for example, the psychological and medical effects ofabortion on the women are hurtful. The medical practitioners haveeliminated the dangers of conceiving on later days. Additionally,research and advancement in technology has also played a major roleon safe abortions (McDonagh, 2010). There are options that a mothercan choose to prevent abortion. These options include adoption.Nevertheless, the Pro-Life advocates believe that a woman should beready to take the results of abortion. Moreover, they argue that evenon the rape cases, it is not justifiable to take the lives of unbornhuman beings (Boonin, 2011).

Pro-life accept that if women need complete control over their body,then control ought to incorporate utilizing contraceptives to preventunwanted pregnancies. Thusly, if a woman neglects to utilize thesemeasures and conceives, she must bear the obligation and outcomes forher actions, as opposed to giving up human life through abortion(Boonin, 2011).

The second perspective is that of &quotPro-choice,&quot who are insupport of abortion on appeal of a woman. Pro-choice believe that thewomen have total rights over their bodies, and the fetus is a pieceof a woman`s body until she delivers. From that point of view, inwhat capacity can the fetus be viewed as a human being before birth?The Principal of Individual Freedom emerges from this thought, whereindividuals ought to have a decision to figure out what suits thembest in their particular circumstances (Reiman, 2009).

The contention proceeds with the concerns of those infants that havebeen diagnosed with deformations. Accordingly, pro-choice advocatesbelieve that distorted infants should not be brought into the worldbecause they will suffer due to the present human service frameworkand how the society will view them (Shrage, 2003). They may sufferbeing undesired children or a burden to the society (McDonagh, 2010).Why bring children into the world are undesirable? What profit doesthat place on the mother and the society? Particularly if a woman isunfit to become a mother, what sort of life would that leave for achild?

According to Boonin, adoption is viewed as an option to abortion bypro-life. However, the pro-choice argue that the adoption is not theanswer. Additionally, they claim that an adoption is not as decent asportrayed. Various adoption organizations do not care for children.As a result, when the children grow older they run away from thesehomes to seek better lives (Boonin, 2011).

If a pregnancy is undesired, abortion is justified. If a pregnancyresults from incest or assault, a woman should terminate it so thatshe can erase the memory of the trauma. A pregnancy originating fromsuch vicious acts can cause psychological harm to a woman. It is hardto understand why individuals choose abortion. The pro-choice contendthat an abortion must be a matter of a woman’s decision and privatechoice, and nobody else ought to intervene with their preference(Reiman, 2009).

Abortion is a disputable issue in both the medical profession andsocial life context. Securing the life of a pregnant woman andfulfill her interests can be challenging. Several conventions havediscussed whether abortion is moral with respect to a person`sindependence. An individual has a direct influence over choices madeover his/her body, although in the health profession, the level ofbenefit overrides an individual`s self-governance. The doctor actsaccording to his or her understanding to ensure the life of both thepatient and the fetus are safe. In case a pregnancy can risk thehealth of the mother, they physician can authorize the patient toundergo an abortion. In other words, many physicians require strongevidence to prove that a pregnancy would be dangerous to a mother’shealth if she carries the fetus to full term.

Considering the entire argument, abortion is a controversial topic.There is both supporting and opposing evidence on both significanceand weaknesses of the practices. If someone considers abortion asgood, then this would be accepting that &quotmurder&quot is good.However, preventing someone from doing an abortion is infringing onher rights. Pro-choice advocates that people have control over theirbodies such that they can destroy fetuses anytime they like.Nevertheless, the pro-life argue that no one has the right to takeanother person’s life. Additionally, they argue that human lifeshould be respected, and women should take proper measures to avoidunwanted pregnancies. After reading reflecting on the findings ofthis research, an individual will be convinced that abortion shouldremain illegal because some women deliberately engage in unsafe sexbecause they are assured of safe and affordable abortion service intheir neighborhood. Although many women claim that carrying unplannedpregnancies is difficult because they can deny them significantopportunities in life, an abortion often creates lifelong personalguilt that can negatively affect both psychological and physicalhealth of a person. The trauma associated with abortions, added tothe stress of sexual assault or incest, aggravates the shock a personexperiences from given events. Although nobody should be forced tocarry a pregnancy resulting from a traumatic experience, thePrincipal of Individual Freedom mainly influences a person’sjudgment on whether to maintain or terminate a pregnancy.


Boonin, D. (2011). A defense of abortion. New York: CambridgeUniversity Press.

McDonagh, E. (2010). Breaking the Abortion Deadlock: From Choiceto Consent. New York: Oxford University Press.

Reiman, J. H. (2009). Abortion and the ways we value human life.Lanham, Md: Rowman &amp Littlefield.

Shrage, L. (2003). Abortion and social responsibility: Depolarizingthe debate. New York: Oxford University Press.

Solinger, R. (2010). Abortion wars: A half century of struggle,1950-2000. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press.