Chronic Disease Osteoarthritis

ChronicDisease: Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritisis themostprevalentof allthetypesof arthritis.In theUnited States,itis estimatedthatmorethan 27 million adultsare affectedby thisdeadlyjointdisease.Thediseaseischaracterizedby intensepainon thejointsespecially,weight-bearingjointssuchas hipsandknees,andmobilityimpairment thatis closelylinkedto thewearingawayof thecartilage (Thompson, 2007). Thisdiseaseimpingeson boththecartilage andthebone,and in severecasesof osteoarthritis,themaladyaffectsthetissuepadsat theendsof thebonewithin a jointplus theunderlying bone.Whenthediseaseaffectsthespine,itcan totallyresultto disability.Thecauseof thisdiseaseis not fullytacitnonetheless,itis consideredto be anintricateadaptive reactionof thejointto environmental, biomechanical andgeneticfactors.Theoccurrenceof osteoarthritis increaseswith ageandatpresent there is noknowncureto thedisease(NAO,2012). Thispaperwillexemplifyenvironmental, geneticandbehavioral factorsthat can boostorcompromisehealthin individualssufferingfrom osteoarthritis.

EnvironmentalandBehavioral Factors

Whileobesity increasestheriskof developingosteoarthritis, a poordietcan significantly increasetheintensityof thedisease.Apoordietmeansa personcannot ingest adequateamountsof antioxidant vitamins, E, A, andC,whichare essentialin thenourishmentofthe cartilagein thebody(NAO,2012). Foodrichinthesevitamins can helpprotectagainst thedegeneration of cartilage especiallyaround thejoints.Researchhas revealedthatantioxidants conferprotectionagainst thedevelopmentof osteoarthritis ((Thompson, 2007). Individualsfrom challengingeconomicbackgroundwhocannot affordto geta balanceddietare at a higherriskof developingosteoarthritis.Evenifhighintakeof theseantioxidants doesnot preventtheonsetof thedisease,theyplaya bigrolein facilitatingnormalbonemetabolism, quickmusclerepairandbonedevelopment(Thompson,2007).

Toomuchweight,on the other hand, canincreasethepredispositionof developingthedisease.There is a closerelationshipbetween excess weightandkneeandhiposteoarthritis. Toomuchbodyweightislinkedwith painrelatedto osteoarthritis, andhipandkneepainare a keypredictor of osteoarthritis development.In addition,highbodymassindex,especiallyat thetender age,is closelyassociatedwith an increasedriskof developingosteoarthritis (Thompson, 2007).

Certainoccupationsthat involvestrenuousmotionssuchas squattingwith heavylifting can not onlyresultto developingosteoarthritis butcan alsodeterioratethecartilage (Levy, 2011). Individualswhoseworkrequirethem to kneelfora longduration,walkingforlongdistancesandliftingheftyobjectscan aggravateanalreadydelicatehealthsituationof an individualsufferingfrom osteoarthritis. In thesamevein,intenseexercisecan compromisethehealthof a personwith osteoarthritis since theyhavea retentive impacton joints.Whileregularexerciseis beneficialtothebody,weightbearingexerciseincreasestheriskof developingthedisease.Nonetheless,sedentarylifestyle can dramatically aggravatetheintensityof thediseaseandcausea personsufferingfrom osteoarthritis intensepainandsuffering(Levy,2011).

Oneof themostconspicuoussymptomsof osteoarthritis is pain,which can beexacerbatedby differentactivitiesandenvironmental factorswithin thesettingof a patient.Anxiety,helplessness,anddepressionhavebeenidentifiedas someof themaindynamics that can aggravatetheintensityof osteoarthritis (NAO, 2012). Thisis morepronouncedin womenabove theageof 45, wherehormonal imbalancecan resultto substantialchangesin thenormalfunctioning of thebody.Forexample,lowlevels of estrogen havebeenidentifiedas a riskfactorof osteoarthritis in womenabove 45 years,intensedepressionandanxietycan reversethenormalhormonal balanceof womenandas suchpredisposing womento osteoarthritis (Levy, 2011). Painassociatedto osteoarthritis has alsobeenconnectedto psychologicalfactorssuchdepressionandanxiety.

Thereis growingevidencethatbesides diseaseprocessesandphysicalimpairment, functionaldisabilitymay be connectedto self-efficacy beliefsin individualssufferingfrom osteoarthritis (NAO, 2012). Thisis morepronouncedin circumstancesof lowerextremityweakness.Self-efficacy entailsgeneralself-worth,skill,motivationandexperience.Self-efficacy has beenconnectedto enhancement of healthof an individualsufferingfrom osteoarthritis. In settingwhereosteoarthritis patientreceiveseducationto boosttheir self-efficacy, there are improvedresponseto painanddisabilityresultingfrom osteoarthritis. Exposureto programsthat enhancecoping capabilityhelpsto influencetherightreactionto osteoarthritis andplaya rolein alleviating painanddisability(NAO,2012). Suchpatientscanfacetheir situationwith confidenceandas a consequencecanlivepositively,andaccomplishallhealthtaskssuccessfully.

Economicandsocialfactorssuchas theincomelevel of thepatient,thelevel of educationandoccupationarealsointertwinedwith theprevalenceandresponseto osteoarthritis. Lowereconomicstatusmeansthata patientcan notbe in a positionto accesstherighthealthcarefacilities,appropriatedietandcoverforthe costrelatedto therapeuticcare.Thistotallycompromisesthehealthof suchindividuals(Levy,2011).

Conclusion

Behavioralriskfactorssuchas accessto anduseof availablehealthcare,healthseeking behavior,income,stresslevel andself-efficacyare alllinkedto educationallevel, andtheyplaya significantrolein enhancingthehealthconditionof a personsufferingfrom osteoarthritis.Eventhough,thereis nowellknowcauseof osteoarthritis, norare thereanyproven methodsof treatment,the aforementioned factorsplaya bigrolein shapingthehealthan individualwhodevelopsthedisease.Inmostcasesgeneticfactorsare blamedforthedevelopmentof thedisease,butenvironmental andbehavioral factorscan significantly increaseordecreasethepredispositionof developingthediseaseandeitheraggravateoralleviatethesituationin alreadysickperson.

References

Levy,B. S. (2011). Occupationaland environmental health: Recognizing and preventing disease andinjury.New York: Oxford University Press.

NationalAction for Osteoarthritis (NAO) (2012).Osteoarthritis.Retrieved from:http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/E0F91DF1E9D1082DCA257BF000211E92/$File/evid4.pdf

Thompson,C. R. (2007). Preventionpractice: A physical therapist`s guide to health, fitness, andwellness.Thorofare, N.J: Slack