TheAuthors’ Reasons for Writing
Inthe contemporary period, the time allocated for studying socialstudies in most schools has been resourcefully transformed to offerstudents with more time to prepare for authorized reading by thestate as well as doing high-stake tests. Parents together with anumber of scholars recognize the significance of enhanced literacyeducation. Nevertheless, their main concern is the civic void whichcould be caused by the reduced or scrubbed out time portion for theinstruction of social studies.
Intheir article, Paquette and Kaufman (2008) have aimed at describing anumber of strategies that could assist students boost theircapability in both writing and reading. These strategies could alsoassist students in strengthening their knowledge of civic content.The strategies are the methods that can be used to merge the contentof social studies with activities aimed at strengthening writing andreading skills among students. Through the literacy strategies,learners would have the opportunity of enhancing their intellectualcapacity in addition to giving them the capability of organizing andcommunicating newly obtained knowledge to other people. This would beattained by applying, determining, and synthesizing implication.Paquette and Kaufman aims at articulating that incorporating literacyand civic skills would help learners in demonstrating understandingof important social studies content and at the same time enhancetheir writing and reading skills.
Grecohas aimed at describing the notion of literacy which in the currentpast has been recognized to signify more than reading and writing.Most English teachers assert that instructing literacy has obtained asocial purpose. Greco puts forth that the purpose of teachingliteracy is to prepare learners to be responsible citizens. Literacyis an effort of reading both the word and the world. The authoraffirms that community service projects can be used by Englishteachers to assist learners become responsive and responsiblecitizens. The projects outline opportunities for learners to takepart in literacy struggles in the society. In a nutshell, Greco aimedat showing the significance of engaging learners in the localcommunity as this would not only develop their civic behavior butalso their participation in the community.
ThePrimary Group for Whom the Piece is Written
Paquetteand Kaufman article is particularly significant to elementary as wellas middle school learners. Besides, high school students could alsoadopt it. This is evidenced by the reason that the authors havedescribed how the time used to teach civics has been set aside forreading and writing skills. Parents, teachers, and educators see thisas damaging to students as it offers little experience to civilsociety.
Themain group for whom Greco’s article is intended is secondary schoolstudents. The article has revealed how Greco formulated andimplemented reading projects to assist The Ellis School studentsboost their literacy skills. The students took part as readingassistants in day-care centers and urban schools in Pittsburgh.
Aristotle`sAppeals (Ethos, Pathos, and Logos) Used in the Articles
Aristotle’sappeal used in both articles is logos. It delineates the internalreliability of the information being put across. Logos shows theprecision of the claim as well as the reason and the efficiency ofits backing proof. In both articles, the authors have providedsufficient evidence to support their claim. This includes both factsand personal examples which provides a logical appeal to the readers.They are able to support their claim and the information providedmakes them seem knowledgeable at the same time. Through this, thereaders are able to build on the information provided and thus,understand the topic in a better way. Besides, readers are able tounderstand the information put across by the authors.
Thearticles use of evidence
Inorder to build on their argument, Paquette and Kaufman have used bothfacts and personal examples. They have acknowledged the contributionsof other authors in their study outlining the facts evidenced in thetopic under investigation. Paquette and Kaufman have also usedpersonal examples in the study. This is evidenced through thestrategies they have provided in the research. The strategies whichfundamentally walk learners via high-order thinking have beenprovided. Furthermore, the questions which learners can engagethemselves in regarding particular readings have also been put forth.Through this, learners can be able to move through great ideas,formulate personal interpretations and apply such knowledge to theworld surrounding them.
Grecohas used personal examples to build on his argument. He has describedhow the use of reading projects assisted the students in enhancingtheir literacy skills besides helping the students to serve thecommunity and become responsible persons. The project involved anumber of students form the senior year who took part in instructinglanguage skills to day-care pupils. The project was a success in thatit assisted students to develop their civic behavior, decision makingcapabilities, and enhanced participation in the community. Greco hasalso acknowledged the works of other authors who have contributed inthe topic.
Greco,N. (1992). Critical literacy and community service: Reading andwriting the world. EnglishJournal81 (5), 83–85.
Paquette,K. R., & Kaufman, C. C. (2008). Merging civic and literacyskills. TheSocial Studies99(4), 187-190.