COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION APPROACH 7
CognitiveBehavioral Intervention Approach
CognitiveBehavioral Intervention Approach
Asa psychotherapeutic model, the cognitivebehavioral approach addresses the cognitive processes, dysfunctionalemotions and maladaptive behavior through goal-oriented systematicprocedures. The critical element with the approach is theacknowledgement that human behavior cannot be controlled only byrational thought. Therefore, cognitive behavioral approach is anaction-oriented and problem specific model aimed at helping clients.The discussions in this paper will explore the cognitive behavioralapproach by demonstrating its models, procedures, effectiveness aswell as limitations of the approach with EBD children. This paperwill illustrate the relationship between emotions, thoughts andbehavior, with the cognitive behavioral approach.
Themodels of cognitive behavioral approach are varied approaches thatfocus on impacting on the cognitive nature of the clients. One of themodels is the Problem-Solving Therapy which focuses on teachingclients on two ways of solving a psychological problem (Yell et al,2013). First is the skills are to define the problem and to explorethe goals that lead to desired results. The use of this model inhandling children with EBD would help them to discover possiblesolutions to the problem.
Thejournal therapy is a model that involves writing the thoughts andfeeling by a client in order to explore the problems and discover theunderstanding of oneself. This approach helps clients to know andaccept their situation by invoking the cognitive process of thinkingand express their emotions in writing. For instance, through thepouring of the situations on the paper also helps to create awarenessto a student with an EBD on the causes of the problem and the need tosolve it.
Themindfulness therapy is perhaps the most appropriate cognitivebehavioral approach that can be applied to children with EBD.According to Yell et al (2013), this approach focuses on helping theclient to avoid the negative thoughts and embrace the good thoughts.This helps a client to accept the situation, whether good or bad andso concentrate on the good thoughts about the situation. Thisapproach can help children with EBD to focus on the good side oftheir education and benefits of studies. This helps them to solve thecauses of EBD by replacing them with good thoughts.
Thecognitive behavioral approach involves a number of proceduresrelating to the model applied. In the case of a self instruction,intervention model of cognitive behavioral approach, the teacher canfollow these procedures to change the target behavior. First is selfmonitoring where a student is required to record the procedures andobservations of a particular behavior or a set of behaviors (Yell etal, 2013). Another procedure is to review on the self-monitoringprocedure and explore its impact on the educational tasks. Yell et al(2013) argues that this will help a student to recognize any positivebehaviors or behavior change. Self evaluation is another procedurethat helps a student to understand his or her progress towards atarget behavior.
TheCognitive Behavioral Approach embraces three main components, namelythe emotion, thoughts and behavior. The process of thinking,expressing emotions, and the behavior of people is all significant inthe cognitive aspect of a person (Capuzzi & Gross, 2003). Thecognitive interventions therefore involve the techniques andprocedures that impart on the emotions, thoughts and behaviors byinfluencing them from the undesired to the desired behavior.
Emotionsare the conscious experiences that have subjective experiences thatare characterized by the psycho-physiological expressions andreactions of biological and mental nature. Considered as reciprocallyrelated to moods, personality and temperament, emotions are highlyassociated with the arousal of the nervous system (Parrott, 2003).The nervous system arousal affects the thought system of a personthat leads to the influence of emotions on the behavior of a person.However, the emotions lead to behavior without necessarily involvingrational thoughts despite arousing the nervous system. Emotions aretherefore complex aspects that influence the behavior of human beingsas well as the thought systems.
Thoughtsare arrangement of ideas that emanate from the cognitive process ofthinking. Thoughts underlie human actions by allowing an individualto interpret, or make sense of the ideas, experiences and events thattend to influence behavior (Capuzzi & Gross, 2003). Throughthoughts, an individual creates the basis of acting, thereby creatingthe elements of behavior. Thoughts are therefore important aspects ofinterpreting the emotions of a human being, thereby controlling theinfluence of the emotions towards the behavior. For instance,students with EBD can be taught how to control their emotions andanger through self-regulation created by thoughts. (Yell et al,2013).
Behavioris the resulting mannerisms that result from the actions of a humanbeing. Conscious or subconscious, voluntary or involuntary, behavioris influenced by the nervous system or the endocrine system (Parrott,2003). This means that emotions and thoughts are significantinfluences of the actions of a person that contribute to behavior.Therefore, behavior is shaped by the thought systems and emotionsthat an individual engage in.
Thecognitive behavioral approach is effective in solving the problemsexperienced by clients by invoking their thinking systems, emotionsand behavior. The cognitive behavioral approach is particularlyeffective in helping children with EBD to learn how they can managetheir academic as well as their non-academic behaviors (Yell et al,2013). This helps in the reverting of the behavior of such childrenby helping them to understand their emotions and the behaviorassociated with the emotions.
Thecognitive behavioral approach is effective in the methods applied tocontrol behavior. For instance, the use of self managementinstruction and verbal meditation are important in the development ofstudent behavior (Rowand, 2007). The self instruction for examples isa procedure that helps students with EBD to observe their own recordof behavior that reinforces their behavior.
However,the use of cognitive behavioral approach is limited by the teacher’sinvolvement in the procedures that should be solely done by students.This can happen when the teacher does the thinking for the studentinstead of leaving the student to think and examine his or hersituation (Yell et al, 2013). This explains the importance of usingproblem-solving aspects and help students to apply self- managementfor them.
SocialSkills and Curriculum Development
Oneof the most relevant information on teaching social skills relatingto the cognitive behavioral approach is problem-solving andmanagement of the undesired behavior. Therefore, the elements andskills of managing stressful situations such as anger management,stress management and self-evaluation should be considered in thedevelopment of the curriculum as basic social skills (Yell et al,2013). The same skills should be imparted to educators on thetraining of teachers by including them in the curriculum (Rowand,2007). The curriculum should be designed to anticipate the challengesin the handling of behavior in children with EBD. Therefore, thecurriculum will incorporate the elements of the cognitive behavioralapproach as social skills. Therefore, a curriculum should be preparedin a manner designed to teach students and children with cognitiveskills and social skills that will make them prosaically competent.
Capuzzi,D. & Gross, D. R. (2003). Counselingand Psychotherapy:Theories and Interventions Third Edition.Indianapolis:MerrillPublishingCompany
Parrott,L., III. (2003). Counselingand psychotherapy (2nd ed.).Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson/Brooks/Cole
Yell,M. L., Meadows, N. B., Drasgow, E., & Shriner, J. G. (2013).EvidencedBased Practices for Educating Students with Emotional and BehavioralDisorders, Second edition.New York: Pearson Education, Limited
Rowand,T. R. (2007). Cognitive Behavioral Interventions: Strategies to HelpStudents make wise behavioral choices. BeyondBehavior,v17 n1 p7-13 Fall 2007