Counseling Theories




Counselinginvolves a number of tasks to be conducted. One of the major sessionsin counseling is the psychotherapy procedure. In psychotherapy, theprinciple to be followed is that of mutual trust and understandingbetween the therapist and the client (Matlin, 2012). The presence ofthis understanding helps in establishing the perfect approach to fitthe client. Most of the approaches in counseling have theirfoundation in the principles developed by Sigmund Freud in hispsychoanalysis approach to counseling (Ungar, 2011). Severalapproaches are adopted in psychotherapy counseling. Among them areclient-centered therapy, holistic health, and cognitive behavioralapproach. Each of the approaches has its distinct characteristicsthat make it more outstanding than the rest. In a classroom set-up,there is an introduction to the concept of counseling and its placein the society. The distinct theories and concepts learnt in theclassroom form the foundation of the future studies and applicationin real life situation.

Themodel of therapy selected is cognitive behavioral theorem. It isbased on three variables actions, beliefs, and consequences. Theunderlying principle extrapolates the relationship between behavioralchanges and the thoughts of the client. The theory lays focus onunderstanding the thoughts of the client so as to control thebehaviors (Matlin, 2012). A combination of manner in which a personbehaves, acts and feels is referred to as behavior modification. Ifan individual has a faulty or distorted thoughts or beliefs, there isa higher chance of that person experiencing distorted behaviors andattitudes. Other scholars have expounded on three other conceptsrelating to the theorem of cognitive behavioral changes. Thesecomponents are-: disconfirmation, reconceptualization, and insight.They are related to the beliefs, alternative beliefs andunderstanding the resulting changes (Zunker, 2012).

Aftera thorough insight on all the theories of counseling, a newunderstanding is gained. This new understanding affects the manner ofthinking and the proposition of different life scenarios. Counselingclasses are meant to be practical-based that helps the learner tohandle life presently and in the future (Zunker, 2012). An in-depthanalysis of the cognitive behavioral theory helps one to understandthe basic needs of teenagers and young mothers. These two groups ofpeople have varying but almost similar challenges in life. The manyopen forums conducted during the counseling classes enable thestudents to share their thoughts on the concept of cognitivebehavioral theory. This enhances the level of understanding and atthe same time and exposition of the many challenges the teenagersface in life.

Inthe given situation, the application of a new theorem would sufficethe needs and the general set-up. The new theorem is known asclient-centered therapy. The theory was expounded by Carl Rogers(1951, 1977), and it is determined by the client’s view ofself-growth and development. It is based on the concept of creationof an open and free environment between the therapist and the client.The theory has its strength on three variable components-: positiveregard, empathy, and genuineness (Sue &amp Sue, 2013). Throughcareful study and analysis of these components, an individual is ableto understand the counseling process.

Thethree components provide the foundation for the necessary program tosuit the client. This approach is most important because itencompasses the aspect of individual responsibility to their life(Seligman, 2004). It helps the client to identify that he has thecontrol over his thoughts and life at large. It emphasizes on thegoal of self-recognition and control. It is also founded on theprinciples of non-directive therapy and active listening techniques.The population selected involves teenagers and young mothers.Application of this therapy will facilitate an open forum guided bythe principle of inclusivity. In cognitive behavioral theory, thereis little interaction between the therapist and the client. Thislimits the level of sharing and openness from the client. It relieson the principle of observation and intuitive conceptualization. Onthe other hand, the self-centered theory is founded on the principlesof active discussion and listening (Sue &amp Sue, 2013).

Ateenager would feel free to share any challenge in life when a spacefor expression is created. A similar case would happen to youngmothers who would feel freer to share with the therapist in the eventof applying this theorem than in the case of CBT. Mutual trustcreated at the start of the therapy sessions helps in enhancing thelevel of material disclosure by the client (Goldenberg &ampGoldenberg, 2013). This theorem also applies Maslow’s intrapsychictaxonomy model which recapitulates on the composition of a humanbeing. The taxonomy in this theorem helps an individual to understandthe interrelationship between the body, spirit, and mind (Ungar,2011).

Counselingis an all-inclusive process and does not rely on the information flowfrom one way. Consultation during the counseling process is necessaryas it would result to exposition of other matters that could berelated to the problem being solved. It is through consultation thatan individual teenager is able to understand the many challengesfacing him. The therapist offers the correct information and all thenecessary materials for recovery and sustenance (Corey &ampCalifornia State University, 2013). Young mothers are also able toexpress their challenges in their new roles of motherhood.Consultation also enhances the level of trust and this promotes thepsychotherapy procedure. Consultation sessions also expose thepresence of discrepancies and provide a solution to curb thosediscrepancies.

Insummation, it is necessary to understand the concept of counselingand the theories associated. Development of the right therapy isinfluenced by the results expected by both the therapist and theclient. Consultation sessions should be encouraged in psychoanalysistherapy to enhance the integration of all inclusive environment(Goldenberg &amp Goldenberg, 2013). Proper intrapsychic taxonomyshould be devised to fit a given scenario. Different populations havedifferent psychoanalysis therapy needs, and it is, therefore,paramount to study the observable characteristics beforeadministering a given therapy. Teenagers and young mothers havealmost similar therapeutic needs in their lives.


Corey,G., &amp California State University. (2013). Theoryand practice of counseling and psychotherapy.Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth.

Goldenberg,I., &amp Goldenberg, H. (2013). Familytherapy: An overview.Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.

Matlin,M. W. (2012). Thepsychology of women.Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

Sue,D. W., &amp Sue, D. (2013). Counselingthe culturally diverse: Theory and practice.Hoboken: John Wiley &amp Sons.

Ungar,M. (2011). Counselingin challenging contexts: Working with individuals and families acrossclinical and community settings.Belmont, Calif: Brooks/Cole.

Zunker,V. G. (2012). Careercounseling: A holistic approach.Australia: Brooks-Cole Cengage Learning.