Dysentery

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is basically diarrhea which has blood or mucus. It is an irritationof the intestine which mostly affects the colon. Diarrhea can bedescribed as passing of more than two watery stools in a day(,2013). Individuals with dysentery usually experience severe or mildabdominal pain and/or stomach cramps. This essay focuses ondysentery.

Indeveloped countries, people suffering from dysentery tend to havemild symptoms and signs. Majority do not even have to go to hospitalsince the ailment resolves itself after a number of days. However,being a notifiable disease local authorities need to be notified ifdoctors come across a patient with dysentery. According to the WorldHealth Organization (WHO) the two common kinds of dysentery areAmoebic (amoebiasis) and bacillary dysentery (,2013). Bacillary dysentery is common in the USA as well as in Europe.The Shigella bacterium causes bacillary dysentery. Amoebic dysenteryon the other hand is common in the tropical regions and it is broughtabout by a form of amoeba known as Entamoeba hystolytica. Bothdysentery types are commonly as a result of poor hygiene people getinfected through consumption of contaminated food.

Amoebicdysentery symptoms are nausea and vomiting, chills and fevers,abdominal pain, watery stool having blood, pus or mucus, fatigue,intermittent constipation, flatulence, loss of appetite, headache, aswell as pain when passing stool. The bacterium causing amoebiosis canextend to the walls of the intestine and to the blood finallyinfecting other body organs. This can result in development of ulcershence blood in a victims stool. Typically, symptoms last for a fewdays but in some cases they could be present for a number of weeks.Symptoms in bacillary dysentery tend to appear in a few days (one tothree) after infection (,2013). Usually symptoms include mild diarrhea and stomachache. Inmost cases there is usually no mucus, pus or blood in the feces.

Thetype of doctor that can treat dysentery is normally a generalpractitioner (GP) or a primary care physician. In diagnosingdysentery, doctors initially ask about the symptoms and then performa physical assessment (,2013). A sample of the sufferers stool may be required in most casesfor analysis. On the odd occasions, if patients have severe symptomsdiagnostic examinations like endoscopy or ultrasound scan may becarried out.

Treatmentincludes rehydration therapy which is basically oral rehydration. Apatient is usually told to take a lot of fluids. Vomiting anddiarrhea cause loss of body fluids that needs to be replaced to avertdehydration (Black, 2010). In cases when vomiting and or diarrhea aresevere doctors may use intravenous liquid replacement to the suffererusing a drip. Another form of treatment is the use of amoebicidal andantibiotic drugs (Black, 2010). It is recommended that these drugsare administered after lab examinations have been carried out.Depending on how severe the symptoms are a combination of both drugscan be given. When a doctor realizes that signs are not so severe(bacillary dysentery) in most cases no medication is given (Black,2010). Patients are only urged to take a lot of fluids.

Peoplelikely to get dysentery are those living or travelling to SouthAmerica, India and Africa (,2013). These regions often have poor sanitation and are prone todysentery outbreaks. To minimize or prevent the risk of gettingdysentery, one is supposed to thoroughly wash their hands beforeeating, cooking or handling food and after visiting a toilet withwater as well as soap and also wash infected individuals clothesusing the hottest setting. Those travelling to regions wheredysentery is common should drink only water that is bottled, eatfresh fruit that they peel themselves and avoid taking drinks or foodpurchased from street vendors

References

Black,R. (2010). Antibiotics for Treatment of . InternationalJournal of Epidemiology,39, (1), 70-74.

.(2013). and its Causes. MedicalNews Today.Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/171193.php