Thispaper examine the contribution of romantic attachment and responsivecare giving to parenting style, investigating both gender and partnereffects. The researcher adopted common conceptualization of parentingstyle (Edelsein et al, 2004), which presents a concise and usefuldescription of optimal and non-optimal parenting styles toward themid childhood. Baumrid presents model of parenting that describesthree styles authoritative, per missive parenting andauthoritarian(Edelsein et al, 2004)
Theauthoritative parenting is preferred as thebest parenting style, andrefers to parenting showing a clear expectations anddifferences tothe child but within involved and warm. On the other hand, strictparenting is harsh and disciplinary and lacks dialogue and warmth,and permissive parenting is not structured, lacks boundaries andunconfident and lacks boundaries.Authoritative parenting is linkedwith the most positive child outcomes,including friendliness withpeers, achievement orientation, cooperation with parents and healthyindependence found that authoritative.
However,Edelseinet al (2004)discovered that,authoritative parenting was linkedtosomeproblems and the lowest intensity problem behaviors, unlike with theauthoritarian and permissive parenting styles which were bothpositively. Authoritative parenting is linked with outcomes ofpositive child, including friendliness with peers, cooperation withparents, achievement orientation and healthy independencefound thatauthoritative parenting was linked with fewer behavioral problems andthe lowest intensity problem behaviors, compared with authoritarianand permissive parenting styles which were both positively linkedwith the intensity of problem behaviors. The theory of attachmentpresents the suitable framework in which to be considered bothparentchild and parent relationships (Konrath et al, 2011). Withregard to parent–child relationships, the developmental attachmentresearch tradition has established a link between maternal discoursesurrounding own early attachment experiences, measured with methodssuch as the Adult Attachment Interview, and responsive caregiving
Datawas collected using questionnaires distributed using mixed stateschools, state run, as part of the Parenting Project. However,additional findings pertaining to couple attachment and caregivingdynamics in this sample are seen by most researchers. According tothe findings, One hundred and twenty-two couples responded toquestionnaire packs that were sent home with children in their secondand third years of schooling. The cover letters invited parents toparticipate in the study, described as a research project onparenting and families, and requested them to complete thequestionnaires separately and seal them in separate envelopes. Noinducement was offered but a gift of stickers for the child was putin each pack. Envelopes were later returned to the school, andcollected by the researcher. Three couples were recruited by thesame method where by parents were invited to participate by letterssent home from school, but participation was by logging on to anonline version of the questionnaire.
Atotal number of one hundred and twenty five couples participated. Themean age for men was 39.3 years and for women it was 36 years, with arange 24 to 55 years in total. Eighty nine percent of men (89%) andninety nine percent of women were biological parents biological andnon-biological parents did not greatly differ on any variable.TheParticipants did not differ according to their method of recruitmenton any variable.
Questionnairesdesign included measures of romantic attachment to partner,caregiving toward partner, and parenting style, in that order.Questionnaires took about twenty minutes to be completed.Attachmentwas measured using the Experiences in Close Relationships(Edelstiened et al, 2004). Each scale contains 18 items scored on atype scale a given number(stronglyagree). Mean scores are taken foreach dimension. According toEdelsein et al (2004)this method has beenshown to be both reliable and valid.
CQhas 32 items, which are scored on a Likert-type scale from 1(strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree). The CQ has fourdimensions, each containing eight items proximity, willingness togive a partner a physical closeness as a form of support,sensitivity, ability to pick up on a partner’s nonverbal cues,cooperation, able to assist without showing controlling anddomineering and compulsion, tendency to become too much involved witha partner’s difficulties. Due to the interest in the particularaspect of the caregiving behavioral system preferably to be commonacross caregiving to partner and to child,the focus based on theinvestigation of responsive caregiving, a composite mean ofproximity, sensitivity, and cooperation. Parenting styles weremeasured using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Themeasure assesses authoritative (twenty seven items), authoritarian(twenty items), and permissive parenting (fifteen items). The Itemsrequested the respondent to rate the frequency with which they useparticular parenting behaviors from 1 (never) to 5 (always).Cronbach’s alphas were ninetythree for authoritative, .85 forauthoritarian, and 75 for permissive parenting, which is similar withthe findings Edelstiened et al (2004). The PSDQ is widely used inparenting research and has been compared with child outcomes (Julaland Camelley, 2012).
Measureof Construct in Terms of Validity and Reliability
Reliabilityas a measure of construct is used to unfold the degree to which toolof assessment gives stable and consistent results. For instance,model one which was saturated but used to measure actor paths, gaveout consistent and stable result for mothers’ anxiety to fathers’responsive caregiving. Relations of covariance stipulated as (B=-.18,z= -1.9, p= .0.49), imply that men are less responsive when caringfor women with higher attachment anxiety. Construct validity is usedto measure whether the appropriate inferences made on the basis ofobservation give the result of intended construct. For example, inmodel 2(χ2(22) = 20.85, p =- .53, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA = .000, SRMR = .037.),theresult were constrained for all actors path to be equal for mothersand fathers to be a good-fitting model, unfortunately, sample did notdisplay any significant differences of mothers and father in terms ofvariable tested.
Socialand Emotional Development
Theresearch analysis relates to social and emotional development in someextension. The romantic relationship of partners and theauthoritative parenting gives as a clear picture of how best sociallyone can be if treated in a warm and involvement manner. The strengthsof the research is the fact that, to interact socially detectsrelationship of couples and how each partner responds accordingly.Its demerit is due to independency of the partners or the transitionbetween caregiving and parenting. Also, nature of individuals variesand sometimes independent. This makes the research not to give theintended result. Lastly, current issues of social and emotionaldevelopment depends on: fideism, trust, money issues in terms ofbasic needs provision and understanding.
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Konrath,Sara, Edward O`Brien, and Courtney, H.(2011). Changes inDispositional Empathy in American College Students over Time: AMeta-Analysis. Personalityand Social Psychology Review. 15,no. 2: 180-198.
Julal,F. S., & Carnelley, K. B. (December 01, 2012). Attachment,perceptions of care and caregiving to romantic partners and friends.EuropeanJournal of Social Psychology, 42, 7,832-843.