Week5: Group Decision Making

Problem-solvingis a continuous process that is an essential part of every work andlife. Every group has the responsibility to solve problems. It is agap between the current condition and the desired situation (Robson,2012). The main reasons why organizations face difficulty in solvingproblems is because they fail to follow the procedures established.All issues are not equally important, and their significance must bekept in perspective. Common sense about priorities, as well aspracticality, are important in maximization of group`s energy, timeand commitment to solving problems (Robson, 2012). There aredifferent techniques of problem-solving models that have proven towork in groups.

Thefirst problem-solving technique is the Plan, Do, Check, Act. Thesequence gives and effective guideline for a successful problemsolving. The plan states that a problem well stated is a problem halfsolved. It means that the problem should be well defined, collectevidence, identify impacts or opportunities and measure ofeffectiveness (Robson, 2012). Do means generating possible causesthrough experimental tests and action plans. Further, check involvesanalyzing data from the experiments. Act refers to carrying out theimplementation plan. Once the group decision is made, the cyclebecomes successfully completed.

Theother technique is the five why problem-solving. The method requiresthat the group should go to a place where the problem occurred andask questions. The five “why” times ensure that the cause of theproblem is identified (Robson,2012).The procedure does not involve data segmentation, regression or anyother statistical tools. At times, it is completed without data beingcollected. By asking the five questions repeatedly, one can peel awaypossible symptoms that lead to the root causes of the problems.

IshikawaDiagram is also a method that has proven to work in solving problems.It is applied on situations where a problem is due to more than onecause or where the 5- Why process is unable to resolve complexproblems. Pictorial representation of cause analysis is achievedusing the method of cause and effect diagram. The process representsan apparent relationship between the cause of the problem and thepossible factors associated with the problem (Robson,2012).The techniques worked due to a broad range of ideas, skills andknowledge brought together to solve problems. Further, they helpreduce bias and increases risk taking. The shared tasks make groupmembers willing to take risks.

TopicFolder Week 6

Formalgroups are formed when more than two persons with common objectivesand willing to work together join to pursue these goals. On the otherhand, informal organizations are formed within the formal groups(Montana&ampCharnov 2009).They are networks of social and personal relationships. There arenumerous distinctions that exist between the two groups.

First,formal organizations are defined in such a way that theresponsibility and authority of each member are clearly stated unlikein informal groups where there are no clear definitions of member’sresponsibilities. A second significant difference between the groupsis the objectives (Montana&ampCharnov 2009).The objective of forming formal organizations is to achieve theobjectives of the firm while those of organizing informal groups isto fulfill social and psychological needs of the group members.Formal structures are stable as compared to informal because they aredeveloped from rules and regulations that aim at achieving theorganizational goals. There are no rules while creating informalgroups (Montana&ampCharnov 2009).

Theother difference is a need. Formal organizations are more needful allthe groups due to their stability. Informal groups lack confidenceand thus are not preferred in many firms. Further, formalorganizations are significant as compared to informal groups.Informal groups use organizational charts in order to show the formalstructures (Montana&amp Charnov 2009).On the other hand, informal groups need organizational charts.

Communicationbetween the two types of organizations differs substantially.Informal groups, formal and written communication is used to expressviews and feedback unlike in informal groups where informal and oralcommunication takes place to express views and orders (Montana&ampCharnov 2009).Moreover, the flow of authority in formal organizations is verticalto junior staffs and responsibility is from the bottom to superiors.Consequently, all the members in informal groups have equal dutiesand rights. Authority flows horizontally.

Week7 Forum

Motivatingemployees drives them towards accomplishing work activities andgoals. Employees are with goals, people and events in their life thatmotivates (Agarwal,2011).Motivation and recognition in organizations go hand in hand. Managerswho are well equipped with recognition techniques make their programssuccessful. It begins with understanding what recognition entails.Recognition is not a reward rather it is a way of interactingemployees that demonstrate value and visibility in the organization(Agarwal,2011).I have worked in organizations that recognize my contributions. Iwould define the recognition I received in four categories namelypraise, respect, opportunity and thank you.

Thefirst recognition element I received was praise. Most employees arehappy to hear their managers say that the work completed was of greatimportance to the organization. Acknowledging the progress of anemployee is important (Agarwal,2011).In most cases, my supervisor praised my work, and it motivated me todo more work.

Theother important recognition element that I received wasopportunities. These were either in the form of education, exposureor experience. Managers make employees feel challenged. Theeducational opportunities that I received were cross training,coaching, new responsibilities, self-study and conferences (Agarwal,2011).During my previous employments, I was able to grow in accordance tomy strength and interests. I am able to solve challenging problems,gather data and can make a presentation to my senior leaders withease. I also got an exposure visibility where I had opportunities torepresent my company on the panel and was given a chance to mentalnew employees in the company.

Asa way of recognizing employees, there is need for a sincere thankyou. It is a highly valued form of employee recognition. I waspleased to receive thank you notes from my seniors once I have thework completed in time and of the required quality. Written recordsare considered the best and longest forms of appreciations. The lastmost important recognition factor is respected (Agarwal,2011).Respect from the seniors is an important factor is everyorganization. There existed a mutual respect between me and themanagers in all the organizations that I worked, and this was auseful recognition in whatever I did.

Week8 Forum

Planningis essential at every inception of management whereas control isrequired at the final stages (Deanet al., 2012).The two management functions are interrelated and cannot be separatedfrom each other. Plan without control is fruitless because controlprovides the necessary to ensure that organizational performanceconforms to the plans. Further, control deals with actual performancein relation to the standards set and the correction of deviations tofacilitate the achievement of goals. On the same point, controlinvolves processes that determine whether progress is being madetowards the attainment of organizational objectives while doingplanning (Deanet al., 2012).

Planis said to be the basis delegation is critical, and information isthe guide while control is referred to as the backbone of success inany organization. Organizational goals cannot be attained in theabsence of planning while planning alone cannot lead to success (Deanet al., 2012). When an organization puts more effort in planning andignores the power, the firm may be affected with certainadministrative problems. These problems can be detrimental to theorganization in the long run. Success is only guaranteed under aneffective control through managers who are also efficient (Dean etal., 2012). This control must address the needs and circumstancesaffecting the business.

Controlis a management function that makes sure that work completed isaccording to laid down plans. Control ensures that the organizationalactivities conform to the pre-determined plans. Further, controlensures that there is no incompetence or indiscipline in theorganization and members of staff do not put the duress on themanagement. Most of the employees are against control as they feelthat it is not favorable (Deanet al., 2012).They prescribe automatic control as compared to forced one. Abalanced opinion is that both the employees and management should beunder certain forms of control.

Toexplain the relationship between planning and controlling, an exampleof how the use of one management functions affects the whole systemwas illustrated. A fire may occur in a building after being struck bylightening, airplane crash or someone light cigarette. The effectsare the same, but the causes differ. The major problem is on how toput off the fire. The fire could not have occurred if the bestcontrol measures were used. Plans on how to control suchcircumstances could have been established. Methods such as installingsmoke detectors, lighting conductors and prohibiting smoking couldhave significantly reduced chances of fire burning the building. Itmeans that planning is looking ahead while controlling is lookingback.


Agarwal,R. D. (2011). Organization and management. New Delhi: McGraw-Hill.

Dean,T. L., &amp Wellman, M. P. (2012). Planning and control. Los Altos,Calif: M. Kaufmann Publishers.

Montana,P. J., &amp Charnov, B. H. (2009). Management. Hauppauge, NY:Barron`s Educational Series.

Robson,M. (2012). Problem-solving in groups. Aldershot, Hampshire, England:Gower.