GENETIC STUDY

GENETICSTUDY

Inlife genes are passed from parents totheir children. The genesconvey specific messages to the newly formed body. The genes passinformation to the newly forming body on the structure formation aswell as influence the all the genotypic characteristics such aspremature baldness. As time evolves the genes mutate due to chemicaland other related factors. However, the original form of the DNA isnot lost as it will be indicated later in the paper. An ideal exampleis families that have a premature baldness being profound among thefamily members. This can be easily proved through genetic analysisand matching of the pieces in the laboratory. The information that istransformed to the newly born child is carried in the organisms DNA(Höglund,2009).However, the cells genetic composition has been mutating. This ismainly attributable to increased presence of chemical in food.Furthermore, there are increased occurrences of illness that lead toincrease rate of drug uptake in the bodies. Moreover to suit the everchanging environments the organism structural chemical compositionhas been changing to ensure the survival for the fittest. To get adeeper understanding of the genetic in relation to evolution it isimportant to look at some basic concepts relating to how theinformation is stored ready for passing on to other new organisms.Additionally, it is also important to understand the survival changesthat occur in genes. To understand these we will look at the moduleat three different levels namely variation present, inheritance andselection over time (Höglund,2009).

Tobegin with, variation in genes means the relative changes that occuronce the organism interbreeds with another of different taxon(Höglund,2009).Ideal example is the interbreeding between grass and dandelion grassthat results in genetic alteration of the offspring .More over theoffspring bears characteristic that are a mixture of the two plants.The ease of identification of the species is quite easy. However, fororganisms that are of the same species their only difference occursin their genetic composition since it would be difficult todistinguish them for example the pine tree. On the other hand geneticcomposition of organism mutate over time. The mutation is prompted byvarious factors in the organism environment. The main cause ischemical influence. Additionally, the need to realign strategicallyto survive in the competitive environment the genetic composition oforganisms changes over time. This is to meet the demands of thedynamic environment where it is survival for the fittest. Themutations main aim is to improve the overall ease to function of theorganism in the environment. The information inthe DNA graduallychanges to place the organism in better position to adapt to theenvironment. The information stored in the DNA is in form of aminoacids that carry encrypted information in them. The magnitude ofsubstitution of one amino acid on the DNA strip can be massiveleading to alteration of the functionality of the organism fully asopposed to the minor adjustment achieved through genetic mutation inorganism. Scientists are required to be very careful while matchingDNA strip since a slight error may result in full alteration ofexpected results.

Inevolution of the human being water is believed to have played a keyrole since it makes up 70% of the human body. This is attributed tothe fact that water reacts with various chemicals to form totally newchemical compounds. Using the knowledge acquired from quantum physicsthe various experiments involving water indicate that water can leadformation of totally new components in life. Starting from the simplefact that water crystallizes to form crystals that have definiteshapes .Given that water forms 70% of the body this shows that it hasthe ability to influence the functioning in the body in addition to effecting changes in the body due to its ability to react with manychemical.

Additionally,water has led to evolution in that reduction in surface covered bywater encourage human species that spent most of their time on treesto walk on two limbs and hunt and gather. As a result, human beingslost most of their hair and it was replaced by a fat layer.Thephotograph below indicate reduction in land masses covered by landthat has been attributed to the evolution of the Homo sapiens

Geneticdiversity is reliant on genetic mutation. This is so since sciencehas proved that most organisms in same taxonomic units up to certainevolved from a common origin. I t is through mutation that the earthproud itself of the biodiversity it has. Right from the bacteria thathad very simple structural composition early in time they havemutated over time and nowadays have complex genetic composition.Additionally, replication in DNA result in errors that arecomplicated though they are solved using the cellular proofreadingmechanism and corrected. The nature of organism may result from theenvironmental influences that mainly affect the phenotypicalcharacteristics as genetic composition is influenced by mutation. Thegenetic characteristic of organisms are not influenced by theenvironment .Though the environment plays a role in shaping some ofthe characteristics of organisms such as hair length and that catersfor the genetically acquired shortcomings in the organism (Höglund,2009).Ideally the environment cannot for example influence the eye color ofan organism. Among other facts that have been associated withenvironments include the long necks of the giraffe that areassociated to browsing trees over a long time. Similarly, theresearchers in evolution cite use and disuse of organs as one of thething that influence the functioning of the organism and theirphysical characteristics as well. For example the appendix in humanbeings became extinct over time due to disuse. Similarly, the tailsin human being reduced in size over a period of time due to disuse.In the same manner the organisms that used their organs more timeswould develop larger ones though the characteristic would not bepassed genetically. As a result, the organism’s offspring had toacquire the characteristics on individual levels.

Furthermoredifferences occur in species genetically composition (Höglund,2009).This is what differentiates the offspring of same species thoughdifferent parents. This contributes to the biodiversity that is therein the environment. For example in the human population we havedifferent races that are different genetically in terms ofcomposition. Moreover, the phenotypical characteristics are similar.An example of a difference in human race is the presence of melaninin human beings. To demonstrate the presence of DNA in all body cellsincluding the hair we undertake an experiment involving the kiwifruit (Höglund,2009).The kiwi fruit cell will be analyzed to understand if all cells areequipped with the body DNA. To begin with the kiwifruit is peeled andchopped into small pieces. The pieces are then mashed in jar to thebest level to increase the surface area. Then the extraction bufferis got through addition of tap water and salt. The extraction thathas been prepared is added to mashed kiwi fruit and further mashed.The aim of increased mashing is to acquire more DNA units from thefruit. The mixture is then incubated for 15 minutes at 60 degreesCelsius that helps breakdown the cell exposing the cell membranes(Höglund,2009).After the incubation the mixture is filtered using a coffee filterpaper removing the lumps and pieces of the kiwi fruit. Ice coldalcohol is then poured into the jar of kiwi filtrate slowly on theside forming a transparent layer on the top of the kiwi mixture. Thealcohol dissolves the fatty membranes while the DNA is coagulated bythe salt. On the region where the two substances meet a whitejelly-like substance is formed and the DNA can be acquired fromthere.

Mutationin organisms, for example in human being is passed on to the offspring in form genes code in the sperms and ova (Höglund,2009).An example of mutations that are passed on to organisms include thegenes causing the following, cystic fibrosis and chronic myeloidleukemia (CML).Paying specific reference to human beings the geneticdisorders that exist due to alteration in gene structural formationare quite a number. They include klinefelter’s syndrome, Down’ssyndrome, hereditary spherocytosis, marfan syndrome, hungton’ssyndrome, and sick cell anemia. They are single gene disorders due togene mutations. The gene mutations cause over 400 diseases to humankind. The genes are passed through the various chromosome that havedefects.AS a result the defect affect the functionality of theorganism an ideal example being the hemophilia in individuals thatresult in the difficult in blood clotting in the body. The defectsare defects are difficult to treat in some individuals where thegenetically developed mutation is severe. At a closer range we aregoing to study the cause of cell mutation that result to cysticfibrosis and its consequences. The disorder is caused by autosomalrecessive gene. The disorder mainly affects the lungs pancreas, liverand intestines .It is evidence d by abnormal transportation of sodiumand chloride ions across the epithelium leading to secrets that arethick and viscous. Additionally, it causes infertility in humanbeings. It also results in individuals having salt tasting skin inaddition to frequent coughing problems. In children it results inpoor growth that is multifactorial. Furthermore, the children maysuffer bowel infections due to the secretions in the ileum. Thediagram below indicates the fingers of person with cystic fibrosis.The hand produces secretions that are thick and viscous.

Thechronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a cancer caused to white bloodcells (Höglund,2009).It is characterized by growth in myeloid cell within the bone marrow.The myeloid cells also accumulate in the blood.CML is described as aclonal bone marrow cell disorder whereby mature granulocytes.Together with their precursors proliferate in the body. It is causedby chromosomal translocation in the body. Its consequences includeincreased exposure to opportunistic infection among the afflictedpersons. It also leads to enlarged liver and spleen that cause painin the upper quadrant of the abdomen. The pressure caused by theenlarged organs reduces the appetite causing weight loss. Furthermoredue to raised basal metabolic rate the afflicted experience mildfevers at nigh coupled with night sweats. The image below showsaffected white blood cells that have enlarged abnormally.

Reference

Höglund,J. (2009).&nbspEvolutionaryconservation genetics.Oxford: Oxford University Press.