Ground Water




Groundwateris the water moving along the surface of streams and perforates intounderground cracks and spaces in soils, sands and rocks. Water fromrains and other sources fills up cracks and concentrates on theground to form a saturated zone. The saturated zone, found after theformation of the saturated zone in underground water is called thewater table. After water perforates to the groundwater, one of thecommon formations is the water table. According to Bear (2012), thebed of saturation is called a water table and the level of watertables, vary depending on whether they have excess water or not. Thewater moves through a series of rocks, formed as a layers in thesubsurface. The water table may be deep, shallow, or some places inthe subsurface layers. In most cases, the ground water emerges incracks and other subsurface regions as aquifers. Aquifers representground water storages, and the speed of after travel depends on thetype of soils and rocks.

Aquifersrepresent the largest water source in the world. After waterperforates into the loose soils and rock beds, it accumulates to formwater tables that serve as the largest source of water incommunities. One of the characteristic of ground water rocks is thatthey are permeable, fractured and connected in spaces in thesubsurface (Harr, 2012). The connections formed in the subsurfaceopens up in the water table to allow water run through rock layers tothe water table.


Oneof the relationships between water table, porosity and permeability,is that water table forms according to the nature of rocks. One ofthe requirements to the formation of ground water is that waterbedsmust be porous and permeable to allow percolation of water particleson the surface to the underground storage systems, represented bywater tables (Follett, 2012). The research indicates that one of theneeds for increased water level in the subsurface is the porosity andpermeability of rocks around ground water storage sites. Accordingto (), ground water rises according to the concentration of watertable. When the water table rises, the amount of water stored in theperforated rocks increases. Similarly, an increase in the water tablereflects an increase in the level of surface waters.


Oneof the characteristics of subsurface water is that it follows crackson rocks and loose soil to form springs and river sources (Bredehoeft&amp Konikow, 2011).The concentration of these waters is very high to form a natural andsustainable source of water. When the Red Cedar River starts to gainstream, one of the explanations is that the river source isincreasing supply. However, since the river depends on groundwater,the increase is directly related to increase in the water table. Whenthe level and volume of water table increases, the effect is felt onthe surface water channels depending on the water table forsustainability. The increase in water level of Red Cedar Riverindicates a similar increase in the water tables and ground water ofthe surroundings. Water table affects the rate of flow as well as thevolume of rivers getting their supply from the rocks. It is thereforevery important to consider water tables in relation to river levelsand the number of strings in a region. This makes it possible torelate water table characteristics to known springs and rivers.


Section 1


Instrument and Value


Cloudy and Windy



Water temp


River Velocity

0.358m/s at 4.8 meters

Water Chemistry

PH = 7.4, N = 1, Phosphates = 1.0, NH3= 0.25


DO% = 25.1 DO = 8.6 TDS = 0.562 Temp = 13oc ATM = 14.3

Plant Life

Densitometer South = 5 #Open Quads = 5.2%

Animal Life

26 Ducks

Human Interaction

6 Sitting 10 Walking 2 Running, and Others Biking

Section 2


50 Steps


15 meters high

Water Velocity



Bear,J. (2012).&nbspHydraulicsof groundwater.Mineola, NY: Courier Dover Publications.

Bredehoeft,J. D., &amp Konikow, L. F. (2011). Ground-water models: validate orinvalidate.&nbspGroundwater,&nbsp50(4),493-495. Bredehoeft, J. D., &amp Konikow, L. F. (2011). Ground-watermodels: validate or invalidate.&nbspGroundwater,&nbsp50(4),493-495.

Follett,R. F. (Ed.). (2012).&nbspNitrogenmanagement and ground water protection.New York: NY: Elsevier.

Harr,M. E. (2012).&nbspGroundwaterand seepage.Mineola, NY: Courier Dover Publications.