HINDU-BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE IN SOUTH-EAST ASIA PRAMBANAN AND BOROBUDUR TEMPLES IN INDONESIA

HINDU-BUDDHISTARCHITECTURE IN SOUTH-EAST ASIA: PRAMBANAN AND BOROBUDUR TEMPLES ININDONESIA

The sources of impulse for design configuration can be followed by path of reference to the history of the past. The dynamic of design improvements in Indonesia demonstrates thevicinity of one of the results of this history that tenaciously backs its head and has been used till presently, as has been thesituation with traditional construction modeling (Greco Roman) in theWest. Indonesian society demonstrates the vicinity of a noteworthymajority, regardless of the fact that the ensuing items have beenutilized innovatively and with notable ingenuity in the advancementof its construction modeling.1The components of compositional outline considered to be industrious regardless in use until today happen to be the ones beginning in the architecture of the Hindu-Buddhist period in Indonesia, to be specific the sanctuaries calledCandi.2Despite the fact that Indonesia is the nation with the biggestMuslim populace in the world, the design componentsrepresentation that allude to this pre-Islamic convention can be viewed as structural paradigms that have been tenaciously utilized from the Islamic period (from the fifteenth centuryonwards) up to the present – post pilgrim time.3

Thetemple is a religious building that is an archeological legacy fromHindu-Buddha development. The building was utilized as a position oflove. Notwithstanding, the term of temple is not just utilized byindividuals to allude to the love place, numerous archeologicaldestinations of non-religious Hindu-Buddhist periods classics, in thesame way as the (royal residence), showers (Petirtaan), door, etcetera, are additionally alluded to the temple.4Temple is a building as a genuine imitation of the Mount Mahameruthat is the house of God.5Thusly, the specialty of construction modeling is embellished withdifferent carvings and models as beautiful examples that are adjustedto the way of Mount Mahameru. The temple presents signs via thereliefs, architecture, and statues that were not at any one time outof the components of otherworldly existence, inventiveness, andinventor aptitude. Prambanan and Borobudur temple are the case.6

Prambanantemple is an excellent and astonishing building that was implicit thetenth century amid the rule of two rulers, Rakai Pikatan and RakaiBalitung. This temple towering as high as 154 feet, the establishmentof this temple has satisfied the yearning of the inventor todemonstrate the Hindu significance in Java. This temple is found 17kilometers from the Yogyakarta downtown area, amidst an excellentarrangement zone. Prambanan temple has three primary sanctuaries inthe essential yard. They are Wisnu, Brahma, and Siwa.7The third temple is the exemplification of Trimurti in Hinduconviction. The third temple orientate to the east. Every fundamentaltemple has a buddy temple that associates the western countries,namely Angsa for Brahma Nandini for Siwa, as well as Garuda forWisnu. What`s more, there are two wedge sanctuaries, 4 drapesanctuaries, and 4 corner sanctuaries.8In the second yard, there are 224 sanctuaries. Prambanan likewise hastemple reliefs portraying the story of Ramayana1.As per masters, the alleviation is like the Ramayana story that isuncovered through oral custom. An alternate intriguing easing is thetree of Kalpataru, in Hindu, which is perceived to be the tree oflife, progression and ecological similarity.9In Prambanan temple, the reliefs of Kalpataru tree are delineatedflanking the lion. The presence of this tree makes masters considerthat individuals in the ninth century had astuteness to deal with theearth.

BorobudurTemple is a Buddhist temple which has 1460 alleviation and 504 Buddhastupa in its perplexing10.A large number of individuals need to visit this structures that isincorporated to the World Wonder Heritages. It is not shocking, inlight of the fact that structurally and practically, this temple is aposition of love, Borobudur is truly appealing. Borobudur wasassembled by King Samaratungga, one of the rulers of the aged Mataramkingdom, the relative of Syailendra tradition. In view of Kayumwunganepigraph, an Indonesian named Hudaya Kandahjaya uncovered thatBorobudur is a position of love that was finished on 26 May 824, justabout one hundred years since the start of the development.11Borobudur name as indicated by some individuals implies a mountainthat has numerous patios (Budhara), while alternate says thatBorobudur implies the cloister on the high place. Borobudur buildingmolded as staircase Punden comprises of 10 levels. Its tallness isaround 113 feet before being revamped and 134 feet after the remodelin light of the fact that the least level is utilized as a support.The Sixth least levels have square shape, the third level upper haveloop shape, and the most abnormal amount has the Buddhist stupaorientates to the west.12Each one level speaks to the phases of human life.

Asper Mahayana Buddhism, everybody who needs to achieve the level ofthe Buddha needed to experience every stage of life. Borobudur`sbase, Kamadhatu, shows that man is still limited by desire. Fourlevels above called Rupadhatu signify man who has had the capacity tobe free from desire, yet he is still attached to the appearance andshape. At these levels, there is a statue of Buddha that is exposed.Then, three levels above where Buddha put inside the punctured Stupacalled Arupadhatu, symbolize man who was free from desire,appearance, and shape. The top part is called Arupa symbolizesnirvana, where Buddha was dwelling. Each level has a wonderfulrespite that show how handy the inventor is. The reliefs will beperused mindfully when you stroll in a clockwise heading (towards theleft of the temple passageway). Borobudur reliefs recount the storyof an incredible story, Ramayana. Furthermore, there are reliefswhich portrayed the state of the general public around then. Case inpoint, the help of ranchers` movement reflects the development ofagribusiness framework and easing of cruising vessel speaks to thedevelopment of the voyage.

Thereare a few contrasts between Prambanan temple and Borobudur temple.The greater part of the reliefs in Prambanan temple representsHindu`s teachings. This temple is, therefore, might be worked as atraining media for the individuals who need to learn the religionHinduism. There is a Ratna on its top its reliefs on the temple areabout Krisnayana and Ramayana. There is a of the goddesses` trinitystatue (Siwa, Brahama and wisnu), Ganesha, Agastya,Durgamahisasuramardini, (in both assemblies of the temple and thedivider specialties of the temple ).13While, all of the reliefs in Borobudur temple reflect Buddha`steachings.therefore, this temple might be worked as an instructionmedia for the individuals who need to learn Buddhism. On the top ofthe temple there is a Stupa, the reliefs of the temple are aboutLelitavistara, Jataka/Avadana, and Gandawyuha. There are also statuesof Buddha (in the gathering of dyani buddha or dyani bodhisattva).

Otherthan of the contrasts above, both of the Prambanan and Borobudurtemple additionally have a few similitudes. They are a love place.They additionally have Ramayana help in their dividers (despite thefact that the story inside them is distinctive). Furthermore, thetemple is a relic of history and as a national stake that must bekept up and watched over. Notwithstanding every one of them, we oughtto be glad on the grounds that Indonesia has a considerable measureof verifiable spots for the visitor destination.

Borobuduris constructed as a solitary vast Stupa, and when seen from abovetakes the type of a goliath tantric Buddhist Mandala, all the whilespeaking to the Buddhist cosmology and the way of psyche. Theestablishment is a square, more or less 118 meters (387 ft) on eachone side. It has nine stages six are square and the upper three areroundabout. The upper stage emphasizes seventy-two little Stupasencompassing one huge focal Stupa. Every Stupa is chime molded andpenetrated by various beautifying openings. Statues of the Buddha sitinside the punctured fenced in areas. Pretty nearly 55,000 cubicmeters (72,000 cu yd) of stones were taken from neighboring waterwaysto fabricate the landmark. The stone was sliced to size, transportedto the site and laid without mortar.14Handles, spaces and dovetails were utilized to structure jointsbetween stones. Reliefs were made in-situ after the building had beenfinished. The landmark is outfitted with a decent waste framework tocook for the territory`s high storm water run-off. To dodgeimmersion, 100 spouts are furnished at each one corner with aremarkable cut foreboding figures fit as a fiddle of titans orMakaras. Borobudur contrasts uniquely with the general outline ofdifferent structures manufactured for this reason. As opposed toexpanding on a level surface, Borobudur is based on a characteristicslope. The building method is, on the other hand, like differentsanctuaries in Java.

Withno inward space as in different sanctuaries and its generalconfiguration like the state of pyramid, Borobudur was first thoughtmore prone to have served as a Stupa, rather than a temple. A Stupais proposed as a temple for the Lord Buddha. Off and on again Stupaswere fabricated just as reverential images of Buddhism. A temple,then again, is utilized as a place of divinity and has internalspaces for love. The intricacy of the landmark`s careful outlinerecommends Borobudur is indeed a temple. Congregational love inBorobudur is performed by method for journey. Travelers were guidedby the arrangement of staircases and halls climbing to the top stage.Every stage speaks to one phase of edification. The way that an aidepioneers was outlined with the imagery of consecrated learning as perthe Buddhist cosmology. The fundamental unit estimation the engineerutilized amid the development was called Tala, characterized as thelength of a human face from the temple`s hairline to the tip of thejaw or the separation from the tip of the thumb to the tip of thecenter finger when both fingers are extended at their most extremeseparation. The unit measurements is then clearly relative betweenpersons, however the landmark has accurate estimations. A review ledin 1977 uncovered continuous discoveries of a degree of 4:6:9 aroundthe landmark.15The engineer had utilized the recipe to lay out the exactmeasurements of Borobudur. The indistinguishable proportion recipewas further found in the adjacent Buddhist sanctuaries of Pawon andMendhut.16Archeologists guessed the reason for the proportion equation and theTala measurement has calendrical, galactic and cosmological subjects,as of the case in other Hindu and Buddhist temple of Angkor Wat inCambodia.

Thefundamental vertical structure could be isolated into threegatherings: base (or foot), top and body, which looks like a humanbody`s three actual divisions. The base is a 123×123 m square in sizeand 4 meters (13 ft) high of dividers. The body is made out of fivesquare stages each with lessening statures. The primary patio issituated back 7 meters from the base`s edge. Alternate porches aresituated once again by 2 meters (7 ft), leaving a restricted hallwayat each one stage. The top comprises of 3 round stages, with each onestage supporting a column of punctured stupas, masterminded inconcentric rounds. There is one principle vault at the middle thehighest point of which is the most elevated purpose of the landmark(35 meters (115 ft) over the ground level). The reach to the upperarea is via stairways at the focal point of each one side withvarious doors, viewed by a sum of 32 lion statues.17The fundamental doorway is at the eastern side, the area of the firststory reliefs. On the inclines of the slope, there are likewisestairways connecting the landmark to the low-lying plain. Thelandmark`s three divisions symbolize three phases of mentalarrangement towards a definitive objective as per the Buddhistcosmology, in particular Kāmadhātu (the universe of goals),Rupadhatu (the universe of structures), lastly Arupadhatu (theindistinct world). Kāmadhātu is spoken to by the base, Rupadhatu bythe five square stages (the body), and Arupadhatu by the threeroundabout stages and the substantial highest stupa. The buildingpeculiarities between three stages have allegorical contrasts.18Case in point, square and nitty gritty designs in the Rupadhatuvanish into plain roundabout stages in the Arupadhatu to speak to howthe universe of structures – where men are still appended withstructures and names – changes into the universe.

Theconstruction modeling of Prambanan temple takes after the regularHindu architecture customs focused around Vastu Shastra.19The temple configuration consolidated mandala temple plan game plansfurthermore the common high towering towers of Hindu sanctuaries.Prambanan was initially named Shivagrha and devoted to god Shiva. Thetemple was intended to copy Meru, the sacred mountain the dwellingplace Hindu divine beings, and the home of Shiva. The entire templecomplex is a model of Hindu universe as per Hindu cosmology and thelayers of Loka.20

Muchthe same as Borobudur, Prambanan likewise perceive the chain ofimportance of the temple zones, crossed from the less heavenly to theholiest domains. Every Hindu and Buddhist ideas has their ownparticular terms, yet the idea`s essentials is indistinguishable.Either the compound site plan (evenly) or the temple structure(vertically) are comprises of three zones.

Bhurloka(in Buddhism: Kāmadhātu), the most minimal domain of regularmortals people, creatures likewise evil spirits. People are stillentangled by their desire, fancy and unholy lifestyle. The externalyard and the foot (base) some piece of the sanctuaries is symbolizedthe domain of Bhurloka. Bhuvarloka (in Buddhism: Rupadhatu), thecenter domain of sacred individuals, possessed by Rishis, religiousausterity, and lesser divine beings. Individuals here start to seethe light of truth. The center yard and the assemblage of everytemple symbolize the domain of Bhuvarloka. Svarloka (in Buddhism:Arupadhatu), the most noteworthy and holiest domain, saved for thedivine beings. It is also referred to as Svargaloka. The internalpatio and the top of every temple symbolize the domain of Svarloka.The top of Prambanan sanctuaries are beautified and delegated withRatna (Sanskrit: gem), the state of Prambanan Ratna took the modifiedtype of Vajra that speak to jewels.

Inantiquated Java temple structural planning, Ratna is the Hindupartner of the Buddhist stupa, and served as the temple`s apex. Amidthe rebuilding, a well which holds a Pripih (stone coffin) was foundunder the core of the Shiva temple.21The principle temple has a well 5.75 meters profound in which a stonecoffin was found on top a heap of charcoal, earth, and stays ofblazed creature bones. Sheets of gold leaves with the engravingVaruna (lord of the ocean) and Parvata (divine force of themountains) were found here. The stone coffin held sheets of copper,charcoal, slag, earth, 20 coins, gems, glass, bits of silver and gold leaves, 12 leaves of gold and seashells (which were cut in thestates of a turtle, Nāga serpent, Padma, and sacrificial table).22

Conclusively,it is evident that the differences that exist between the two templesare structural though not in every aspect. There as many similaritiesas there are differences. Regardless of the difference in the purposethey were built to serve, the temples of Borobudur and Prambananattest to striking likeliness. The hypothesis that Buddha was Hinduis valid considering the similarities as explained in the essay.There are similar aspects in the components that are included in thebuildings designs. The two served as religious places and they showhow Southeast Asia was affiliated religiously. They are a rich sourceof religious history and are major attraction sites in Indonesia.

Notes

  1. Lopez, ‘Dance in Ninth Century Java: A Methodology for the Analysis and Reconstitution of the Dance.’Near Eastern ArchaeologyVol. 66, No. 3, Sep., 2003, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3210919 (Accessed 17 August 2014).

  2. Ibid., 78

  1. Kempers, ‘Prambanan.’ Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en VolkenkundeDeel 111, 1ste Afl. 1955, pp. 6-37, http://www.jstor.org/stable/27859906 (Accessed 17 August 2014).

  1. Ibid., 34

  2. Jacques and Michael, ‘The Beamwork Illustrated at Prambanan.’IndonesiaNo. 57, Apr., 1993, pp. 5-14, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3351239 (Accessed 17 August 2014).

  3. Peter., ‘Borobudur, Indonesian Cultural Heritage.’ Studies in ConservationVol. 18, No. 3, Special Issue on the Conservation of Borobudur Temple, Indonesia (Aug., 1973), pp. 102-112http://www.jstor.org/stable/1505653 (Accessed 17 August 2014).

  4. Caesar., ‘The Restoration and Conservation Project of Bodobur Temple, Indonesia.’ Studies in Conservation Vol. 18, No. 3, Special Issue on the Conservation of Borobudur Temple, Indonesia (Aug., 1973), pp. 113-130 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1505654 (Accessed 17 August 2014).

  5. John, ‘Borobudur: The Top Plan and the Upper Terraces.’ East and West,Vol. 45, No. 1/4 1995, pp. 283-304 http://www.jstor.org/stable/29757214 (Accessed 17 August 2014).

  6. Walker, ‘Borobudur and Prambanan Impression Spoiled.’ International Travel News, Feb, 2004, Vol.28(12), p.82(2), https://ap01-a.alma.exlibrisgroup.com/view/uresolver/61RMIT_INST/openurl?ctx (Accessed 17 August 2014).

  7. Ibid., 104

  8. Yulia, ‘Stakeholders’ Perception of the Authenticity and Sacredness of World Cultural Heritage Sites: A Study on the Borobudur and Prambanan Temples, Indonesia.’ 2012, https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/ err=21&ampurl=L2VzZXJ2L1VROjI4MjYzMC9zNDA2MTM0NTFfcGhkX2ZpbmFsdGhlc2lzLnBkZg (Accessed 17 August 2014).

  9. William, ‘A Heritage of Ruins: The Ancient Sites of Southeast Asia and their Conversation.’ 2013, https://galegroup.com%2fopenurl%2fopenurl%3frft.volume%3d28%26rft.issn%3d0191-8761%26rft_val_fmt (Accessed 17 August 2014), 50

  10. Ibid., 67

  11. Geoffrey and Heather., ‘Global Heritage and Local Problems: Some Examples from Indonesia.’ Current Issues in Tourism, 2004, Vol.7(4), p.436-439, https:// www.tandfonline.com%2fdoi%2fabs%2f10.1080%2f13683500408667998 (Accessed 17 August 2014), 438

  12. Ibid., 440

  13. William, 99

  14. Jacques and Michael, 48

  15. Lopez, 66

  16. Ibid., 67

  17. Geoffrey and Heather, 437

  18. William, 52

  19. Ibid., 55

Bibliography

Lopez Royo., ‘Dance in Ninth Century Java: A Methodology for theAnalysis and Reconstitution of the Dance.’NearEastern ArchaeologyVol.66, No. 3, Sep., 2003,http://www.jstor.org/stable/3210919(Accessed 17 August 2014).

KempersBernet. ‘Prambanan.’ Bijdragentot de Taal-, Land- en VolkenkundeDeel111, 1ste Afl. 1955, pp. 6-37, http://www.jstor.org/stable/27859906(Accessed 17 August 2014).

JacquesDumarçay and Michael Smithies., ‘The Beamwork Illustrated atPrambanan.’IndonesiaNo.57, Apr., 1993, pp. 5-14, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3351239(Accessed 17 August 2014).

SoedimanPeter., ‘Borobudur, Indonesian Cultural Heritage.’ Studiesin ConservationVol.18, No. 3, Special Issue on the Conservation of Borobudur Temple,Indonesia (Aug., 1973), pp.102-112http://www.jstor.org/stable/1505653(Accessed 17 August 2014).

VoûteCaesar., ‘The Restoration and Conservation Project of BodoburTemple, Indonesia.’ Studiesin ConservationVol. 18, No. 3, Special Issue on the Conservation of BorobudurTemple, Indonesia (Aug., 1973), pp. 113-130http://www.jstor.org/stable/1505654(Accessed 17 August 2014).

JohnM. Lundquist., ‘Borobudur: The Top Plan and the Upper Terraces.’Eastand West,Vol.45, No. 1/4 1995, pp. 283-304 http://www.jstor.org/stable/29757214(Accessed 17 August 2014).

WalkerRichard., ‘Borobudur and Prambanan Impression Spoiled.’InternationalTravel News,Feb, 2004, Vol.28(12), p.82(2),https://ap01-a.alma.exlibrisgroup.com/view/uresolver/61RMIT_INST/openurl?ctx(Accessed17 August 2014).

Widyaningsih,Yulia Arisnani., ‘Stakeholders’ Perception of the Authenticityand Sacredness of World Cultural Heritage Sites: A Study on theBorobudur and Prambanan Temples, Indonesia.’ 2012,https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/err=21&ampurl=L2VzZXJ2L1VROjI4MjYzMC9zNDA2MTM0NTFfcGhkX2ZpbmFsdGhlc2lzLnBkZg(Accessed 17 August 2014).

WilliamChapman,. ‘A Heritage of Ruins: The Ancient Sites of Southeast Asiaand their Conversation.’ 2013,https://galegroup.com%2fopenurl%2fopenurl%3frft.volume%3d28%26rft.issn%3d0191-8761%26rft_val_fmt(Accessed17 August 2014).

Wall,Geoffrey and Black, Heather., ‘Global Heritage and Local Problems:Some Examples from Indonesia.’CurrentIssues in Tourism,2004, Vol.7(4), p.436-439, https://www.tandfonline.com%2fdoi%2fabs%2f10.1080%2f13683500408667998(Accessed17 August 2014).