HISTORY AND WAR 13
PartOne Democratic Peace and War
Therehas been extensive research in the field of Democratic peace wherescholars have documented literature on the theory of Democraticpeace. Thetheory dates back to the days of Immanuel Kant in his perpetual peacework.1From the earlier works, it is evident that democracies cannot go intowar against each other though there may lack an empirical evidence onthe future of the theory. The most influencing thing when predictingthe future of the Democratic Peace theory is the behaviors of thedifferent proponents or groups. According to Kant, the internationalpeace is based on the interaction between the states and theRepublican government as noted in all his works.
Whendiscussing this topic of democratic peace, the following should beput into considerations the structural explanation where all electedleaders are not expected to lose in any war for the sake of theirvoters. This normative explanation alludes that democracies willexhibit the norms of their respective domestic democracies, and theywill have an expectation that others will emulate them.2Finally, there is the power transition theory explanation, whichstates that there are no fights between and among democracies withregard to territories. Democracy should be applied in all avenues ofgovernance and equality should be observed.
Theentire population should respect democratic avenues regardless oftheir social class. An observable factor in the British democracy isthe change in the voter turn-out. This is informed by the lack oftrust that numerous people have in the various institutions.
Additionally,there have been instances of sidelining of people in the running ofthe institutions. Almost every single citizen in the Britishterritory has lacked confidence in the various set institutions.3Evidenceis clearly seen in the conduction of elections whereby people do notparticipate fully.Differentauthors of the democratic peace theory review back to the works ofKant that were published in his 1795 essay on perpetual peace. Eachscholar basis his or her work on that essay and then tries to lookfor any correlation between governance and decision making under thedemocratic rule. Doyle puts into place the peaceful co-existencetheorem between and among democracies. There also exists a waragainst non-liberal and democratic relations among states.
Thevarious groups of people portray different views in matters relatedto participation in democracy. Participation in political functionsis correlated to the gender of those participating. Men have beenportrayed to be very active in political and development matters ascompared to their female counterparts. This has an origin in thelevel of trust with the government in its handling of gender andsocial issues.4Political institutions have been degraded in terms of their status bythose who hold those offices. Politics has also been illustrated as abusiness for a few selected groups of people in the society. Thisresults to inequality which undermines the legitimacy of the socialinstitution.
Ethicalissues also have an influence in the political scenes and also thegeneral conduct of a public officer. Code of ethics refers to all thevalues that govern the working of professionals in their area ofexpertise. Code of ethic acts as a guide to professionals especiallywhen faced by a problem that require decision making. The success ofimplementation of ethics is governed by the core values in a specificindustry. Core values refer to the guidelines upheld by professionalsin their work setup, and they contribute hugely to the morality ofthe society.5On the other hand, ethics refer to the moral good or bad of an actionas viewed by the society.
Fromthe different works done by different scholars on this area, it isevident that the theorem has evolved over time. For instance, Maozand Russett analyzed the theorem into two categories for the case ofcarrying out research. It came out as a conclusion that there is acorrelation between democracy and peace. Another finding found wasthat, the measure of democracy is strongly related to the level ofpeace.6
Otherscholars have showed that the peace level in liberal states dictatestheir interrelationship with the outside world. For example, in hiswork, R.J. Rummel, a pioneer in the field of democracy, came up witha number of ideas.
Forinstance, the violence between states can only happen if one of thestates is non-libertarian. It is, therefore, evident that the theoremof democratic peace is not static, but rather it evolves over time.
Democraticpeace structure existing in democratic societies is a traitattributed to the growth of this theorem. Russet, for instance, putsforth these democratic peace structures as the key of powers in thegovernment system.7These democratic peace structures are the control parameters for theexistences of balances in the government system. Another scholar,John M. Owen actualizes that the structures exist for the bettermentof the individuals and also in harmonizing the ruling system. Allthese are aimed at ensuring freedom for all individuals so as to makethem feel incorporated in the system of governance.
Themajor question of many scholars is whether there is anything suchinternational peace? And whether there is any correlation betweeninternational peace and democratic peace theorem. These two majorquestions act as the basis of the different milestones in the fieldof democracy.
ChristopherLayne argues that there is no explanation of the democratic peacefrom the institutional constraints. For democracy to exist, Laynestates that there should be a correlation between democratic publicopinions and democratic peace, and this is not affected by whether astate is democratic or not. Steve Chan states that if there was nowar, democracies would still have threatened each other. He arguesthat the external effect is of great importance in discussing thistheorem.
Ethicaldecisions and Humanity in war times
Trustand confidence levels in the citizens can be explained through thestudy of morality theories. In understanding the theory of morality,two broad sets of theories are developed. The theories areconsequentialist and non-consequentialist. The consequentialisttheory determines the moral right or wrong of an action whereas thenon-consequentialist theory basis the judgment of morality of good orwrong on the action by a person. In other words, it does not rely onthe consequence from the action.8For instance, a happy world is as a result of the happiness of itspeople. Ethics affects an individual’s career path in life. It alsoaffects the behavior of a person in an organization. As it is said, ahuman being is a social animal, who must interact with people in theday to day activities. The way one behaves in public is influenced bythe moral beliefs of that person.
Exclusionin the electoral processes is based on various factors such as socialclass, the education level of a person among others. Inequalities inthe society are the norm that results from the poor governancestructures.
Thishas been extended at workplace and people feel alienated from theactivities of the government. However, it is advisable for thegovernment to advocate equality since this is an element of socialjustice.
Theprovision of equal opportunities at the workplace is a social justicefactor. All employers should make sure that employees are treatmentequally.9This not only fosters good business practices but also promotesharmony and teamwork in the workplace. Those who support the case ofstrategic business borrow from the idea of equal opportunity. Equalopportunity is a fundamental need for the business, and it boosts thecompetitive advantage.
Researchhas indicated that women and the young generation have been isolatedfrom political events and processes. This alienation has resulted tothe low interest among the two groups in governance matters. Althoughsome of the contributing factors to alienation are within themselves,it is evident that women are not given a chance to expressthemselves.Thisis a source of democratic crisis, and the result is poor governancestructures.10Women oppose their fellow men from taking public offices or engagingin political matters.
Anotherarea of public dismal is the way the police institution is governed.Thereare several sectors where the law enforcement authorities have failedcitizens especially in terms of emerging modern issues such asinternet crimes. The public outcry in matters such as cybercrimes andcyber-harassments have fallen to the deaf ears of law enforcementofficials. There are also increased crimes of communication networksjam due to hacking activities by criminals.11All these issues fall in the jurisdiction of the law enforcers, andthey should be highly trained to handle them in a professional way.This will improve the public trust restoration process.
Politicianshave ventured in sporting activities in the promotion of theircampaigns, as well as to fulfill their political ambitions. Theresultant effect is commercializing the discipline of sports and thuserosion of morals and ethics. Transparency in the conduction ofactivities of this nature should be encouraged. The extent oftransparency and openness in conducting the World Cup games should beapplied in international politics. There is a big following for thefootball clubs as compared to the international politics. Politiciansshould change the way of addressing issues to borrow a leaf fromsports. In some cases, sports bring political rivals together andthus cohesiveness of members of society.12
Publicinstitutions should be reevaluated to enhance confidence levels ofthe electorates. Law enforcement officials should always keepthemselves up to date in all matters of governance. Rising publicoutcry is on the rise because of the redundancy by the lawenforcement officials which need to be addressed in a proper way.Globalization has equally led to the need of keeping updatedinformation at all times and also availing it to the relevant bodies.There is massive sharing of data in law enforcement worldwide, andthis has improved the quality of services provided to the citizens.13Government has rescued the law enforcement authorities through theprovision of all the material needed for smooth running of theseagencies. There is a heavy investment in modern law enforcement toolssuch as communication gadgets. Training of law enforcement officersis another key area of investment by the government which hasresulted in quality investigation reports.
Thepolitical environment in which well respected politicians, opposedideologies and close contest among parties exist are likely toencourage involvement to a greater degree than the sleazy, stale,and centrally converged present state of affairs. The existing stateof affairs then, can be said to be generating a crisis of involvementin British elections, nonetheless, as mentioned before in this essaypolitical involvement is not limited to elections only.
Thereis proof to hint that the electorate has relocated from the customaryforms of involvement to more unorthodox types of participation. Thiswould point to a transformation in the nature of involvement, insteadof something as severe as a crisis.
Asurge in interest group memberships has been an example of such formsof unconventional political involvement that reveals divergence ofinvolvement rather than crisis. As parties’ political orientationshave become more centralized, and the parties have formulatedpolicies that they expect will offend a little number of supporters,interest group memberships have established as they are an efficientalternative means via which people try to manipulate thegovernment. A number of these groups presently outdo politicalparties in terms of memberships.14The National Trust group, for instance, has a membership of more than3,500,000 people. Resulting from this large membership volume andproficiency of the organization in the upkeep of Britain’s sites ofhistorical importance and the countryside, the group has addedcontrol over the government compared to any other individual members.
TheNational Trust hence can consult and lobby with the government onissues that its members agree on. Admittedly, a proposition has beenmade that the democracy or participation of such groups cannot alwaysbe guaranteed.14Once the members are cleared for admission, the incentive to attemptany additional participation is not necessary instead, politicalfunctions are entrusted to those in the upper hierarchy of the group.
Inthe same way, those further up the ladder frequently have morecontrol on the direction of policy than the ordinary members.Nevertheless, it is not a must that members should continue payingthe fee but would stop paying if the concerns of the group starteddiffering seriously from the member’s interests. In addition,whilst ordinary members may not be actively engaged with theirrespective groups, they still receive updates and newsletters andother similar privileges at consistent intervals for being amember.15
Theachievement of groups in encouraging involvement can be seen via thefact that only about two percent of the citizens had memberships ofpolitical parties in the year 2004 while nearly a third wereprojected to be members of such groups in the very same year. Thesegroups are perfect platforms from which to penetrate the governmentwhen they are big enough in membership volume and even prior to theirexpansion they are still able to arouse public, and media support fortheir campaigns.16Consequently, they play a significant role in formulating thepolitical agenda and making sure that governments honor to theirpromises.
Charles,J. D., & Demy, T. J. (2010). War,peace, and Christianity: Questions and answers from a just-warperspective.Wheaton, Ill: Crossway Books.
Cormack,W. S. (2002). Revolutionand political conflict in the French Navy 1789-1794.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Drake,H. A., & Biennial Conference on Shifting Frontiers in LateAntiquity (5, 2003, Santa Barbara, Calif.). (2006). Violencein late antiquity: Perceptions and practices.Aldershot: Ashgate.
Englund,P., & Graves, P. (2011). Thebeauty and the sorrow: An intimate history of the First World War.London: Profile.
Halsall,G. (2002). Humour,history and politics in late antiquity and the early Middle Ages.New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kelly,J. (2006). Thegreat mortality: An intimate history of the Black Death.London: Harper Perennial.
Lee,W. E. (2011). Warfareand culture in world history.New York: NYU Press.
Liebeschuetz,J. H. W. G. (2006). Declineand change in late antiquity: Religion, barbarians and theirhistoriography.Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate.
Mitchell,P. D. (2004). Medicinein the Crusades: Warfare, wounds and the medieval surgeon.Cambridge, UK: New York.
Oakes,E. H., & Kia, M. (2004). Socialscience resources in the electronic age.Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
Parker,G. (2008). TheCambridge illustrated history of warfare: The triumph of the West.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Svendsen,L. F. H., & Pierce, K. A. (2010). Aphilosophy of evil.Champaign: Dalkey Archive Press.
1 Svendsen, L. F. H., & Pierce, K. A. (2010). A philosophy of evil. Champaign: Dalkey Archive Press. Pg. 55
2 Parker, The Cambridge illustrated history of warfare: The triumph of the West. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Pg. 148
3 Svendsen, L. F. H., & Pierce, K. A. (2010). A philosophy of evil. Champaign: Dalkey Archive Press. Pg. 152
4 Halsall, G. (2002). Humour, history and politics in late antiquity and the early Middle Ages. New York: Cambridge University Press. Pg. 221
25 Drake, H. A., & Biennial Conference on Shifting Frontiers in Late Antiquity (5, 2003, Santa Barbara, Calif.). (2006). Violence in late antiquity: Perceptions and practices. Aldershot: Ashgate. Pg. 120
6 Oakes, E. H., & Kia, M. (2004). Social science resources in the electronic age. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. Pg. 88
7 Lee, W. E. (2011). Warfare and culture in world history. New York: NYU Press. Pg. 55
38 Mitchell, P. D. (2004). Medicine in the Crusades: Warfare, wounds and the medieval surgeon. Cambridge, UK: New York. Pg. 68
49 Oakes, E. & Kia, M. (2004). Social science resources in the electronic age. Westport: Greenwood Press. Pg. 185
10 Liebeschuetz, J. H. W. G. (2006). Decline and change in late antiquity: Religion, barbarians and their historiography. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate. Pg. 99
11 Cormack, W. S. (2002). Revolution and political conflict in the French Navy 1789-1794. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pg. 141
12 Drake, H. A., & Biennial Conference on Shifting Frontiers in Late Antiquity (5, 2003, Santa Barbara, Calif.). (2006). Violence in late antiquity: Perceptions and practices. Aldershot: Ashgate. Pg. 82
513 Englund, P., & Graves, P. (2011). The beauty and the sorrow: An intimate history of the First World War. London: Profile. Pg. 112
614 Halsall, G. (2002). Humour, history and politics in late antiquity and the early Middle Ages. New York: Cambridge University Press. Pg. 52
715 Kelly, J. (2006). The great mortality: An intimate history of the Black Death. London: Harper Perennial. Pg. 166
16 Charles, J. D., & Demy, T. J. (2010). War, peace, and Christianity: Questions and answers from a just-war perspective. Wheaton, Ill: Crossway Books. Pg. 115