ID Number

IDNumber

CourseName Course Number

1.

Participant

Traditional Exam

Open-book Exam

Gender

1

58

58

Male

2

55

65

Male

3

65

65

Female

4

48

72

Male

5

58

45

Female

6

62

52

Female

7

52

55

Male

8

55

62

Female

9

65

62

Male

10

52

55

Female

Traditional Exam

Open-book Exam

Mean

57

Mean

59.1

Standard Error

1.8074

Standard Error

2.4424

Median

56.5

Median

60

Mode

58

Mode

65

Standard Deviation

5.7155

Standard Deviation

7.7237

Sample Variance

32.6667

Sample Variance

59.6556

Kurtosis

-0.9314

Kurtosis

0.13095

Skewness

0.1160

Skewness

-0.2092

Range

17

Range

27

Minimum

48

Minimum

45

Maximum

65

Maximum

72

Sum

570

Sum

591

Count

10

Count

10

Inthis exercise, we examine the overall results of the students’traditional exam and open-book exam. Ten students took thetraditional exam and the same set of students took the open-bookexam. The two exams are made up of 100 items. The traditional examresult of the students on average is 57 while the open-book examaverage result is 59.1. On the other hand, the standard deviation ofthe group’s traditional exam result is 5.7155 while the standarddeviation of the group’s open-book exam result is 7.7237. Astandard deviation of 5.7155 and a standard deviation of 7.7237entail no significant variation in the students’ traditional examresults.

Traditional Exam (Male)

Open-book Exam (Male)

Traditional Exam (Female)

Open-book Exam (Female)

58

58

65

65

55

65

58

45

48

72

62

52

52

55

55

62

65

62

52

55

Traditional Exam (Male)

&nbsp

Open-book Exam (Male)

&nbsp

Traditional Exam (Female)

&nbsp

Open-book Exam (Female)

&nbsp

Mean

55.6000

Mean

62.4000

Mean

58.4000

Mean

55.8000

Standard Error

2.8740

Standard Error

2.9428

Standard Error

2.3367

Standard Error

3.5693

Median

55.0000

Median

62.0000

Median

58.0000

Median

55.0000

Standard Deviation

6.4265

Standard Deviation

6.5803

Standard Deviation

5.2249

Standard Deviation

7.9812

Sample Variance

41.3000

Sample Variance

43.3000

Sample Variance

27.3000

Sample Variance

63.7000

Kurtosis

0.3141

Kurtosis

-0.0578

Kurtosis

-1.4978

Kurtosis

-1.0825

Skewness

0.5629

Skewness

0.6023

Skewness

0.0953

Skewness

-0.2443

Range

17.0000

Range

17.0000

Range

13.0000

Range

20.0000

Minimum

48.0000

Minimum

55.0000

Minimum

52.0000

Minimum

45.0000

Maximum

65.0000

Maximum

72.0000

Maximum

65.0000

Maximum

65.0000

Sum

278.0000

Sum

312.0000

Sum

292.0000

Sum

279.0000

Count

5.0000

Count

5.0000

Count

5.0000

Count

5.0000

Comparingthe results of the mean and standard deviation of the traditionalexam results and open-book exam results of male versus female, it canbe said that the mean traditional exam result of male group is 55.6while the mean traditional exam result of the female group is 58.4.This shows that the female group scored higher compared to the malegroup in terms of traditional exam. On the contrary, the meanopen-book exam result of the male group is 62.4 while the meanopen-book exam result of the female group is 55.8. This merely showsthat the male group scored higher on their open-book exam. Thestandard deviation for the traditional exam of the male group is6.4265 while the standard deviation for the traditional exam of thefemale group is 5.2249. This means that there is closer variation inthe scores of the female group’s traditional exam compared to thescores of the male group’s traditional exam. The standard deviationof the male group’s open-book exam is 6.5803 while the standarddeviation of the female’s group’s open-book exam is 7.9182. Thistime, for the open-book exam, the results of the male group havecloser variations compared to that of the female group.

Week6 Exercise 1

Hypothesis:Participants will make fewer attempts to solve the problems in thenoisy environment.

Participant

Quiet condition

Noisy Condition

1

18

20

2

23

15

3

15

10

4

17

16

5

20

11

6

15

13

7

33

16

8

18

14

9

19

16

10

14

16

11

22

17

12

18

9

Quiet condition

&nbsp

Noisy Condition

&nbsp

Mean

19.333333

Mean

14.416667

Standard Error

1.468525

Standard Error

0.9166667

Median

18

Median

15.5

Mode

18

Mode

16

Standard Deviation

5.0871198

Standard Deviation

3.1754265

Sample Variance

25.878788

Sample Variance

10.083333

Kurtosis

4.5949218

Kurtosis

-0.277671

Skewness

1.8950372

Skewness

-0.2743173

Range

19

Range

11

Minimum

14

Minimum

9

Maximum

33

Maximum

20

Sum

232

Sum

173

Count

12

Count

12

Thedata results above shows that there are a total of 12 participantswho conducted the tasks in two separate conditions: simulatingworking on their own in a quiet office and simulating working in abusy open plan office, with a lot of high volume background noise.Participants made several attempts for each workplace condition. Theresults showed that on a quiet condition, the average attempts madeby the participants is 19.33 while in a noisy condition, theparticipants were able to make an average of 14.42 attempts. From thestandard deviation result, it can be said that there is closervariation in the attempts made by the participants under a noisycondition. Hence, we accept the hypothesis that participants willmake fewer attempts to solve the problems in the noisy environment.

Week6 Exercise 2

Hypothesis:there will be a difference in the percentage of time the eye contactis held depending on the gender of the interviewer

Sex of interviewer

Male

Female

38

25

31

24

24

31

21

15

20

31

30

12

28

34

32

26

31

23

26

35

&nbsp

Male

Female

Mean

28.1

25.6

Variance

30.1

58.26666667

Observations

10

10

Pooled Variance

44.18333

&nbsp

Hypothesized Mean Difference

0

&nbsp

df

18

&nbsp

t Stat

0.841

&nbsp

P(T&lt=t) one-tail

0.205691

&nbsp

t Critical one-tail

1.734064

&nbsp

P(T&lt=t) two-tail

0.411382

&nbsp

t Critical two-tail

2.100922

&nbsp

Inthis exercise, we examine the difference in the percentage of timethe eye contact is held. In comparing the results of the male groupand the female group, it can be said that the average percentage oftime the eye contact in the male group is held is 28.1 while theaverage percentage of time the eye contact in the female group isheld is 25.6. This shows a difference of 2.5. Hence, we accept thehypothesis which states that there will be a difference in thepercentage of time the eye contact is held depending on the gender ofthe interviewer.

Week7 Exercise 1

Hypothesis:Participants will make more errors in the stress condition.

Participant

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

No stress

7

10

5

13

5

3

10

5

6

10

Stress

6

17

10

11

4

9

9

11

8

17

No stress

&nbsp

Stress

&nbsp

Mean

7.4

Mean

10.2

Standard Error

1.002219759

Standard Error

1.323295549

Median

6.5

Median

9.5

Mode

10

Mode

17

Standard Deviation

3.169297153

Standard Deviation

4.184627954

Sample Variance

10.04444444

Sample Variance

17.51111111

Kurtosis

-0.880756827

Kurtosis

-0.002184462

Skewness

0.431406893

Skewness

0.574983343

Range

10

Range

13

Minimum

3

Minimum

4

Maximum

13

Maximum

17

Sum

74

Sum

102

Count

10

Count

10

Inthis exercise, an experiment was conducted to examine the effect ofstress on skilled performance. There were ten participants in thisstudy and each of them performed a choice reaction task under twoconditions namely stress and no stress. Participants’ performancewas measured as the number of errors made in 100 trials. Under stresscondition, participants made an average of 10 errors while under nostress condition, participants were able to make an average of only 7errors. This simply shows that the hypothesis is true. Participantswill make more errors in the stress condition.

Week7 Exercise 2

Hypothesis:There will be a difference between the two groups in their cognitiveperformance.

Control

18

19

21

21

24

24

26

27

Treatment

13

14

16

16

20

20

22

28

&nbsp

Control

Treatment

Mean

22.5

18.625

Variance

10.57142857

24.26785714

Observations

8

8

Pooled Variance

17.41964286

&nbsp

Hypothesized Mean Difference

0

&nbsp

df

14

&nbsp

t Stat

1.856872477

&nbsp

P(T&lt=t) one-tail

0.042246384

&nbsp

t Critical one-tail

1.761310115

&nbsp

P(T&lt=t) two-tail

0.084492768

&nbsp

t Critical two-tail

2.144786681

&nbsp

Inthis exercise, an experiment was performed to examine the effect of adietary supplement on various aspects of cognitive performance.Sixteen participants took part in the study with each participantbeing randomly allocated to a control (no supplement) or a treatment(supplement) condition. Under controlled condition or no supplementcondition, in which participants did not receive any dietarysupplement, the average cognitive performance is 22.5 or 23. On theother hand, under treatment condition or supplement condition, inwhich participants received a dietary supplement, the averagecognitive performance of the group is 18.625 or 19. This shows adifference of 4. Hence, we accept the hypothesis. There will be adifference between the two groups (control and treatment) in theircognitive performance.

Source

Psych.csufresno.edu,.(2014). Mean &amp SD. Retrieved 21 May 2014, fromhttp://psych.csufresno.edu/psy144/Content/Statistics/means_and_sds.html