IDNumber
CourseName Course Number
1.
Participant 
Traditional Exam 
Openbook Exam 
Gender 
1 
58 
58 
Male 
2 
55 
65 
Male 
3 
65 
65 
Female 
4 
48 
72 
Male 
5 
58 
45 
Female 
6 
62 
52 
Female 
7 
52 
55 
Male 
8 
55 
62 
Female 
9 
65 
62 
Male 
10 
52 
55 
Female 
Traditional Exam 
Openbook Exam 

Mean 
57 
Mean 
59.1 
Standard Error 
1.8074 
Standard Error 
2.4424 
Median 
56.5 
Median 
60 
Mode 
58 
Mode 
65 
Standard Deviation 
5.7155 
Standard Deviation 
7.7237 
Sample Variance 
32.6667 
Sample Variance 
59.6556 
Kurtosis 
0.9314 
Kurtosis 
0.13095 
Skewness 
0.1160 
Skewness 
0.2092 
Range 
17 
Range 
27 
Minimum 
48 
Minimum 
45 
Maximum 
65 
Maximum 
72 
Sum 
570 
Sum 
591 
Count 
10 
Count 
10 
Inthis exercise, we examine the overall results of the students’traditional exam and openbook exam. Ten students took thetraditional exam and the same set of students took the openbookexam. The two exams are made up of 100 items. The traditional examresult of the students on average is 57 while the openbook examaverage result is 59.1. On the other hand, the standard deviation ofthe group’s traditional exam result is 5.7155 while the standarddeviation of the group’s openbook exam result is 7.7237. Astandard deviation of 5.7155 and a standard deviation of 7.7237entail no significant variation in the students’ traditional examresults.
Traditional Exam (Male) 
Openbook Exam (Male) 
Traditional Exam (Female) 
Openbook Exam (Female) 
58 
58 
65 
65 
55 
65 
58 
45 
48 
72 
62 
52 
52 
55 
55 
62 
65 
62 
52 
55 
Traditional Exam (Male) 
  
Openbook Exam (Male) 
  
Traditional Exam (Female) 
  
Openbook Exam (Female) 
  
Mean 
55.6000 
Mean 
62.4000 
Mean 
58.4000 
Mean 
55.8000 
Standard Error 
2.8740 
Standard Error 
2.9428 
Standard Error 
2.3367 
Standard Error 
3.5693 
Median 
55.0000 
Median 
62.0000 
Median 
58.0000 
Median 
55.0000 
Standard Deviation 
6.4265 
Standard Deviation 
6.5803 
Standard Deviation 
5.2249 
Standard Deviation 
7.9812 
Sample Variance 
41.3000 
Sample Variance 
43.3000 
Sample Variance 
27.3000 
Sample Variance 
63.7000 
Kurtosis 
0.3141 
Kurtosis 
0.0578 
Kurtosis 
1.4978 
Kurtosis 
1.0825 
Skewness 
0.5629 
Skewness 
0.6023 
Skewness 
0.0953 
Skewness 
0.2443 
Range 
17.0000 
Range 
17.0000 
Range 
13.0000 
Range 
20.0000 
Minimum 
48.0000 
Minimum 
55.0000 
Minimum 
52.0000 
Minimum 
45.0000 
Maximum 
65.0000 
Maximum 
72.0000 
Maximum 
65.0000 
Maximum 
65.0000 
Sum 
278.0000 
Sum 
312.0000 
Sum 
292.0000 
Sum 
279.0000 
Count 
5.0000 
Count 
5.0000 
Count 
5.0000 
Count 
5.0000 
Comparingthe results of the mean and standard deviation of the traditionalexam results and openbook exam results of male versus female, it canbe said that the mean traditional exam result of male group is 55.6while the mean traditional exam result of the female group is 58.4.This shows that the female group scored higher compared to the malegroup in terms of traditional exam. On the contrary, the meanopenbook exam result of the male group is 62.4 while the meanopenbook exam result of the female group is 55.8. This merely showsthat the male group scored higher on their openbook exam. Thestandard deviation for the traditional exam of the male group is6.4265 while the standard deviation for the traditional exam of thefemale group is 5.2249. This means that there is closer variation inthe scores of the female group’s traditional exam compared to thescores of the male group’s traditional exam. The standard deviationof the male group’s openbook exam is 6.5803 while the standarddeviation of the female’s group’s openbook exam is 7.9182. Thistime, for the openbook exam, the results of the male group havecloser variations compared to that of the female group.
Week6 Exercise 1
Hypothesis:Participants will make fewer attempts to solve the problems in thenoisy environment.
Participant 
Quiet condition 
Noisy Condition 
1 
18 
20 
2 
23 
15 
3 
15 
10 
4 
17 
16 
5 
20 
11 
6 
15 
13 
7 
33 
16 
8 
18 
14 
9 
19 
16 
10 
14 
16 
11 
22 
17 
12 
18 
9 
Quiet condition 
  
Noisy Condition 
  
Mean 
19.333333 
Mean 
14.416667 
Standard Error 
1.468525 
Standard Error 
0.9166667 
Median 
18 
Median 
15.5 
Mode 
18 
Mode 
16 
Standard Deviation 
5.0871198 
Standard Deviation 
3.1754265 
Sample Variance 
25.878788 
Sample Variance 
10.083333 
Kurtosis 
4.5949218 
Kurtosis 
0.277671 
Skewness 
1.8950372 
Skewness 
0.2743173 
Range 
19 
Range 
11 
Minimum 
14 
Minimum 
9 
Maximum 
33 
Maximum 
20 
Sum 
232 
Sum 
173 
Count 
12 
Count 
12 
Thedata results above shows that there are a total of 12 participantswho conducted the tasks in two separate conditions: simulatingworking on their own in a quiet office and simulating working in abusy open plan office, with a lot of high volume background noise.Participants made several attempts for each workplace condition. Theresults showed that on a quiet condition, the average attempts madeby the participants is 19.33 while in a noisy condition, theparticipants were able to make an average of 14.42 attempts. From thestandard deviation result, it can be said that there is closervariation in the attempts made by the participants under a noisycondition. Hence, we accept the hypothesis that participants willmake fewer attempts to solve the problems in the noisy environment.
Week6 Exercise 2
Hypothesis:there will be a difference in the percentage of time the eye contactis held depending on the gender of the interviewer
Sex of interviewer 

Male 
Female 
38 
25 
31 
24 
24 
31 
21 
15 
20 
31 
30 
12 
28 
34 
32 
26 
31 
23 
26 
35 
  
Male 
Female 
Mean 
28.1 
25.6 
Variance 
30.1 
58.26666667 
Observations 
10 
10 
Pooled Variance 
44.18333 
  
Hypothesized Mean Difference 
0 
  
df 
18 
  
t Stat 
0.841 
  
P(T<=t) onetail 
0.205691 
  
t Critical onetail 
1.734064 
  
P(T<=t) twotail 
0.411382 
  
t Critical twotail 
2.100922 
  
Inthis exercise, we examine the difference in the percentage of timethe eye contact is held. In comparing the results of the male groupand the female group, it can be said that the average percentage oftime the eye contact in the male group is held is 28.1 while theaverage percentage of time the eye contact in the female group isheld is 25.6. This shows a difference of 2.5. Hence, we accept thehypothesis which states that there will be a difference in thepercentage of time the eye contact is held depending on the gender ofthe interviewer.
Week7 Exercise 1
Hypothesis:Participants will make more errors in the stress condition.
Participant 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
No stress 
7 
10 
5 
13 
5 
3 
10 
5 
6 
10 
Stress 
6 
17 
10 
11 
4 
9 
9 
11 
8 
17 
No stress 
  
Stress 
  
Mean 
7.4 
Mean 
10.2 
Standard Error 
1.002219759 
Standard Error 
1.323295549 
Median 
6.5 
Median 
9.5 
Mode 
10 
Mode 
17 
Standard Deviation 
3.169297153 
Standard Deviation 
4.184627954 
Sample Variance 
10.04444444 
Sample Variance 
17.51111111 
Kurtosis 
0.880756827 
Kurtosis 
0.002184462 
Skewness 
0.431406893 
Skewness 
0.574983343 
Range 
10 
Range 
13 
Minimum 
3 
Minimum 
4 
Maximum 
13 
Maximum 
17 
Sum 
74 
Sum 
102 
Count 
10 
Count 
10 
Inthis exercise, an experiment was conducted to examine the effect ofstress on skilled performance. There were ten participants in thisstudy and each of them performed a choice reaction task under twoconditions namely stress and no stress. Participants’ performancewas measured as the number of errors made in 100 trials. Under stresscondition, participants made an average of 10 errors while under nostress condition, participants were able to make an average of only 7errors. This simply shows that the hypothesis is true. Participantswill make more errors in the stress condition.
Week7 Exercise 2
Hypothesis:There will be a difference between the two groups in their cognitiveperformance.
Control 
18 
19 
21 
21 
24 
24 
26 
27 
Treatment 
13 
14 
16 
16 
20 
20 
22 
28 
  
Control 
Treatment 
Mean 
22.5 
18.625 
Variance 
10.57142857 
24.26785714 
Observations 
8 
8 
Pooled Variance 
17.41964286 
  
Hypothesized Mean Difference 
0 
  
df 
14 
  
t Stat 
1.856872477 
  
P(T<=t) onetail 
0.042246384 
  
t Critical onetail 
1.761310115 
  
P(T<=t) twotail 
0.084492768 
  
t Critical twotail 
2.144786681 
  
Inthis exercise, an experiment was performed to examine the effect of adietary supplement on various aspects of cognitive performance.Sixteen participants took part in the study with each participantbeing randomly allocated to a control (no supplement) or a treatment(supplement) condition. Under controlled condition or no supplementcondition, in which participants did not receive any dietarysupplement, the average cognitive performance is 22.5 or 23. On theother hand, under treatment condition or supplement condition, inwhich participants received a dietary supplement, the averagecognitive performance of the group is 18.625 or 19. This shows adifference of 4. Hence, we accept the hypothesis. There will be adifference between the two groups (control and treatment) in theircognitive performance.
Source
Psych.csufresno.edu,.(2014). Mean & SD. Retrieved 21 May 2014, fromhttp://psych.csufresno.edu/psy144/Content/Statistics/means_and_sds.html