Identifying the Science Process

Identifyingthe Science Process


TheBasic Processes

Basic process


Example of a Scientific Activity


This is the most important process. It includes seeing, smelling, feeling (texture, temperature, among other), hearing, tasting, and hefting weights (Martin, Jean-Sigur, Schmidt, 2005).

Collecting flowers and observing their leaves, petals, colour, size, shape, among other qualities.


This process is also known as sorting. It involves observing similarities and differences of various items and grouping them according to their similarities.

Selecting all beans of the same type and grouping them together.


This is expressing different ideas in various forms. For instance, orally, or in written form such as graphs, tables, diagrams, or photographs.

Describing change in height of a plant over time, and recording it in a graph.


This is the process of measuring attributes such as volume, length, temperature, weight, and time.

A student can measure volume of a certain liquid using a measuring cylinder.


This is the process of describing what is likely to happen next in a certain situation.

A person can predict the behaviour of certain object if dripped in water. Some may float while others sink.


This is the process of interpreting or explaining an observation.

A person can explain why some insect produce some light in darkness.

TheIntegrated Processes

Integrated process


Example of a Scientific Activity

Identifying and controlling variables

This is identifying all valuables that influence a situation and select one to conduct an investigation holding all the other valuables constant.

Investigating whether a hard-boiled egg sink or float on water.

Formulating and testing hypotheses

This is predicting what happens to one variable if another similar valuable changes, and then testing the results.

A person can predict the effect of heartbeat rate after an intensive exercise.

Interpreting data

This is the process of describing the data in an investigation, analysing it, and giving a conclusion.

One can investigate the effect of high temperature while dissolving sugar in water, and draw a graph to come up with a conclusion.

Defining operationally

This is explaining a variable that is complex for most people to understand.

Defining a tree health according to its number of leaves.


This involves finding out why a change of one variable leads to a change to another similar variable.

One can experiment the ability of a magnet to pick up paper clips.

Constructing models

This is drawing and building representation of objects that that is not possible to see it or measure it directly.

It is impossible to measure or see the solar the solar system.

Ateacher plays a critical role in fostering these processes (Naga andBhaskara,2008).In addition, these processes are very important since they helpstudent to understand scientific process. For instance, a teacherneeds to observe and share his or her conclusion with the students.In addition, a teacher needs to have enough knowledge of all thebasic and integrated processes.


Martin,D. J., Jean-Sigur, R., &amp Schmidt, E. (2005). Process-orientedinquiry—A constructivist approach to early childhood scienceeducation: Teaching teachers to do science.&nbspJournalof Elementary Science Education,&nbsp17(2),13-26.

Naga,K. U., &amp Bhaskara, R. D. (2008).&nbspScienceprocess skills of school students.New Delhi: Discovery Pub. House.