International Relations




Non-stateactors (NSA) are internationally recognized individuals,organizations, or groups that are not associated to any state. NSAshave influence that may cause a change despite being unassociatedwith a renowned entity in a given country. The non-state factors mayinclude ordinary people, multinational entities such as civil societynetworks, business corporations, and NGOs, terrorist and criminalnetworks, and groups in internal conflict. Unique structuresassociated with NSAs include self-resourcing and self-motivating. Nogiven country is responsible for financing or directing the networkentities. The entities have freedom for choosing their preferredstructure or even having none. Lastly, it has cross-border operationsthat have influence internationally. For example, the entitiescontrol access to equipment and technology, information, as well asbuilding networks such as ‘franchised’ business (Myjer 2001, p.15).

Definingterrorism is difficult because it is impossible to forge adescription that would encompass the methods, motives, and targetsused from in one case to another. The present terrorism definitionsare weak because they do not explain the various forms of extremism.The main variation when defining terrorism arises when explainingmotivation of the extremists. Since the terrorists act because ofvarying reasons, the gap in information has made it impossible tocome up with an all-inclusive definition term. It is essential forthe definition to be all-inclusive since the techniques andstrategies terrorists choose are determined by the accomplishmentgoal (Myjer 2001, p. 33).

Uncivilnetworks arise from fundamentalism and exclusivism, which is mainlyreligious or ethnic in nature. Fundamentalism is tendency to enforceinflexible policies to both parties willing to adopt the principles,as well as the persons unwilling to follow the doctrines. Forexample, the African society is largely divided on the ethnic basis,but some dominant societies attempt to enforce their principles overthe weaker groups that have independent preferences. The exclusivismof the weaker community’s interest in the ‘endorsed doctrine’makes the disgruntled faction to form ‘uncivil networks’ thatwould fight for the inclusion of their preferred interest. Thisimplies that uncivil networks form because a section of the societyfeels exempted in the existing policy infrastructure (Glasius 2009,p.5).

Humantrafficking involves transfer of humans from one place to anotherwith the objective of commercial sex exploitation, coerced labor, orsexual slavery that benefits the trafficker. Some traffickers maytransfer humans to wed them, in case of forced marriage, or forextracting organs such as kidneys and ova. Human trafficking is aserious offence as it is a violation of human rights. A person can becharged with human trafficking if he or she harbors, transports,transfer, receive, or recruit people using force, threats, deception,or fraud. The trafficker abuses the human rights of the victimsbecause they do not offer them compensation or they coerce captivesto act against their wish (Human Trafficking 2014, p. 1).

Strongarms control primarily depends on the existence of strong controlregulations. However, several existing treaties do not include majorweapons manufacturers and suppliers. In addition, there are no strictpolicies that have been enforced to control or punish states orparties that are develop and distribute weapons against the signedpolicies (Myjer 2001, p. 25). In addition, the existing policies arefurther ineffective because the signatories exploit loopholes of thepolicies, which allow them to develop, use, and distribute weaponsundeterred. The signatories circumvent the weapons control policybecause it has weak points (Myjer 2001, p. 26).


MarliesGlasius, “Uncivil Society,” Departmentof Government, London School of Economics.(April 6, 2009). August 30, 2014)

“HumanTrafficking,” UnitedNations Office on Office on Drugs and Crime. 2014,retrieved on August 30, 2014 August 30, 2014)

Myjer,Eric P. J. Issuesof Arms Control Law and the Chemical Weapons Convention: ObligationsInter Se and Supervisory Mechanisms.The Hague [u.a.]: Nijhoff Publ, 2001.