The nongovernmental organizations refer to bodies that pursue agenda meant to cushion the poor against suffering, promote environmental protection, ensure that people get their basic needs and health related problems are tackled.1 They are mainly involved in community development programs that empower the various parties. The NGOs may focus on improving the young people and women’s welfare.2 However, the intergovernmental organizations refer to groups formed by nations to help tend to various matters of world importance.3 An ideal example is the United Nations. The IGOs are meant to help the various governments in world to cooperate on matters that would help raise the welfare of the citizens.
Thebodies could be used to negotiate for free trade among countries andopening up of the of the market.4Themain difference between NGOs and IGOs is that that the former cancreate treaties that are ratified by the member while the latter hasno mandate to come up with treaties to be ratified by the nations.Since IGOs are formed by sovereign states they have the ability toratify treaties that become applicable to all members states.5However, the NGOs can only contribute to the development of suchlaws. Furthermore, nations are required to contribute to a pool offunds to help run the functions of an IGO, on the other hand theoperations of NGOs are dependent on funding from well wishers andwilling states to support.6
2.The tragedy of commons is a theory in economics that touches onsustainable development in a country. The theory points out that anindividual will strive to cater for their individual need at theexpense of the society.7To this effect the long term interest of the whole group is violatedsince it becomes unsustainable to for the community development tohappen. The main areas of concern are activities taken by individualsthat destroy the long term welfare of the society. Among the variousissues raised include environmental pollution that leads to globalwarming. The welfare of the next generation is as a result destroyedat an expense of individual interest. Furthermore, the tragedy ofcommons concept could be interpreted in terms of over drawing ofresources by individuals for self interest. An ideal example is theoverfishing in water bodies that leads to depletion of the fish. Thelong term survival of the future generation is put at risk due toreduced resources. To a greater extent the food security is put atrisk .The concept is also applicable in taxation, game theory andpolitics where it is used to analyze the behavior of the variouselements. The author of the concept stressed against overexploitation of resources to the detriment of future generations.Furthermore, population control was stressed to ensure that theenvironment only holds the optimum number of people.
3.The human rights refer to the fundamental principles that guaranteethe human being the right to fair treatment. They are based onspecific legal standard that ensure they are enforced on the humanrace to a greater extent they are described as inseparable to humanbeings.8The main aim of human rights is to provide individuals in societywith an opportunity to fair treatment free from oppression. Violationof human rights that are enshrined in the constitution makesindividuals sue people in court of law since the provision is alreadymade in the constitution. They are considered universal. Human rightsare the core of the public policy in various countries. The NGOs havetalked to the protection of human rights across nations. They holdgovernments culpable of any human rights violations. Human rightshave always been cited as a recipe for economic development.9Thisis due to human beings being allowed to carry out their productionactivities that are within confines of the law free of interruptions.Human rights enable countries to ensure that their citizens arerespected and enjoy their basic need. An ideal is the human right tobe free from torture and harassment. Additionally, the provision tofair treatment before the eyes of the law enables individuals tofreely carry along their economically productive activities.
4.Supranational governance refers to the approach used in publicadministration whereby multi level governance is created.10Theprinciple is also applicable in political science. The member statesare able to join together and then form an organization that hasbeen vested with specific powers. The powers are delegated to thebody to coordinate the various countries. The countries are able tocome up with a working formula on how countries will contribute tothe leaning of the body. The formed bodies enhance s the economic andpolitical integration of member states. The body is able to negotiatefor better trade terms deals with other similar bodies from otherregions of the world.11The reasons that make me support the supranational governance are theimproved bargaining powers that countries enjoy due to having acommon bargaining front. An ideal example is the ability to negotiatefor lower tariffs for the member states goods being exported to othercountries. Through such interventions the member states are able toenjoy the benefits of the multi-national organization. The supranational organizations formed may also lead to political integrationamong countries that leads to stability in the country. The bodiesare able to come up with treaties that are ratified by member stateswith an aim of improving the welfare of its citizens. This providesthem an opportunity for spurred economic growth in the countries.Additionally, the countries are availed a chance to enjoy the benefitof having multi-national organization with countries that are betterdeveloped.12Forthe over populated countries the formation of such bodies withmembers that have a lower population provides an opportunity toexport labor hence reduction in unemployment rates.
5.Economic nationalism refers to a set up of policies geared towarddomestic governance of the economy.13This also includes the control of labor, capital movements andformation. The approach advocates for the imposition of trade tariffson other countries if hit is the only way to protect the economy fromrunning down. The proponents of this approach question the benefitsof globalization to the individual nations. Globalization is viewedto weaken the individual countries economies.14On the other hand economic internationalism refers to the approachwhereby nations approach issues on a common front to ensure thatmember nation’s benefits are achieved. The approach presses formore cooperation among the member states. To cap it all, economicstructuralism refers to taking into consideration the structuralfeatures as an economic analysis is being undertaken. The analysiswill enable establishment of equilibrium mechanism in the economicsystem. The economists are obliged to come up with solutions to thevarious structural rigidities in the market.15
Uia.org. 2014, `Types of International Organization | Union of International Associations`. Accessed August 10 2014. http://www.uia.org/archive/types-organization/cc
Thomas Pogge and Winfried Menko. World Poverty and Human Rights. (Cambridge: Polity, 2008), 37.
Robert Art,  International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues. (Boston: Longman, 2011), 101.
Micki McGee, Yaddo: Making American Culture. (New York: The New York Public Library, 2008), 74.
Art,Robert J. InternationalPolitics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues.Boston: Longman, 2011.
McGee,Micki. Yaddo:Making American Culture.New York: The New York Public Library, 2008.
Pogge,Thomas and Menko, Winfried. WorldPoverty and Human Rights.Cambridge: Polity, 2008.
Uia.org,.2014. `Types Of International Organization | Union Of InternationalAssociations`. Accessed August 10 2014.http://www.uia.org/archive/types-organization/cc.