Aron, E. N.,& Aron, A. (1997). Sensory-processing sensitivity and itsrelation to introversion and emotionality. Journalof personality and social psychology,73(2),345-368
Usingempirical study, Aron E & Aron A (1997) demonstrates how sensoryprocessing sensitivities correlates with social introversion andemotionality. The authors show that the research on physiologicalrelated performances within different personality indicates thatintroverts have clear biochemical differences. For example, theauthors note that some sensory variables act to increase sensitivityin introverts but such variables cannot increase the same sensitivityin extraverts. The utilization of this piece of literature will helpin understanding the correlation between sensory processes andsensitivity among introverts. The authors suggest that sensoryprocess enhance sensitivities among introverts thus, the use of thefindings from the study will help in designing a framework on thesensitivity analysis of introverts.
Inthe article, comprehensive literature develops on sensory processingthus, the article contains the required piece of literature onintroverts. The authors assert that introverts have weak facets toinhibit exposures thus, they need to protect themselves fromexcitation unlike extraverts. The authors apply qualitative approachto define the fundamental characteristics of people identified ashighly sensitive. Here, the authors conclude that high sensitivity isan internally dependable paradigm. In this regards, the authorsassert that sensitivity is connected to social introversion, but doesnot have a clear identity to introversion. Likewise, emotionality hasa high link to high sensitivity, but lacks the clear identity oflinkage. In addition, the authors suggest that there exist twoseparate groups of high sensitivity people since the identicalfundamental temperament that exist among introverts depend onenvironmental factors in adulthood. As such, childhood experienceshave significant effects on adult neuroticism because of relationshipbetween insecure attachment styles and neuroticism. In fact, poorparenting cam affect sensitive children highly due to the presence ofcortisol reactions. Given the above facets to the article, theauthors provide highly significant suggestions that help tounderstand the sensitivity processes in introverts.
Lieberman, M. D., & Rosenthal, R. (2001). Why introverts can`talways tell who likes them: multitasking and nonverbaldecoding. Journal of personality and socialpsychology, 80(2), 294-310
Lieberman &Rosenthal (2001) in this article suggest that introverts do not havea high propensity to multi-tasking and they have poor dynamics indecoding nonverbal. In addition, the authors suggest that introvertscan only decode nonverbal facets only when the decoding is a primarytask. The authors support theories that demonstrate the socialcompetencies of extraverts compared to introverts and the advantagethat extraverts have in the utility of nonverbal decoding. As such,the authors assert that introverts have poor dynamics in multitask.In addition, the authors by using an empirical study demonstrate thatthere exists a huge difference between introverts and extraverts interms of attentional orientation. Utilizing the literature inunderstanding introversion helps in drawing a design manifestation ofmultitask and decoding.in addition, the article contains a comparisonapproach, which helps in understanding the major differences betweenintroverts and extraverts.
Lieberman & Rosenthal (2001) conduct two studies to demonstratethe differences that exist between introverts and extraverts. In thefirst study, the authors examine the accuracy of nonverbal decodingfor extraverts and introverts within the multitasking context whilein the second study, they manipulates the basic social objective suchthat dyads focus on CM and RA in a comparable context. In studythree, the authors replicate study one and study two in a multitaskframework while in study four, they give the extraverts andintroverts memory tasks to assess the context of the working-memorydisparity associated with introversion. In this regards, the authorsdemonstrate that although differences exist between introverts andextraverts, but major differences in decoding exist because mosttasks require introverts and extraverts to maintain a single goal.
Thorne, A. (1987). The press of personality: A study of conversationsbetween introverts and extraverts. Journal of Personality andSocial Psychology, 53(4), 718-726
Thorne (1987)uses an empirical study of 52 women assembled in sets, in twoconversations one with an extravert and an introvert to understandthe interactions between introverts and extraverts. Using qualitativeanalysis, the authors demonstrate that there exists a huge differencebetween conversational styles cultivated by introverts and thosecultivated by extraverts. In fact, the authors suggest thatintroverts engage other introverts in conversations focused inproblem talk while extraverts with extraverts engage in a widevariety of claims and topics. In this regards, Lieberman &Rosenthal (2001) assert that the power of dispositions to generatesituations and the transactional conceptions of extraversion andintroversion result to the aforementioned differences.
The articleprovides a comprehensive context and understanding to introversion asit discusses the effects of personality psychology to people. Inaddition, the examination of introverts and extraverts as establishedin discussions with strangers reveal the significance ofdispositional press in expressing personality. The article helps inunderstanding the differences between extraverts and introverts interms of conversational styles and content, which most studies haveignored. As such, the authors provide a comprehensive understandingof introverts thus, the article will allow in the development of acontextual brief on introversion. Conversation styles and contenthave demonstrated a huge difference in attainment and the way thebody works thus, the findings suggested may help in understandingthe specific alignments and disposition of introverts. As suggested,introverts commit to conversations that deal with problems, a casesupported by their low level of interaction and happiness.
Zelenski, J. M., Santoro, M. S., & Whelan, D. C. (2012). Wouldintroverts be better off if they acted more like extraverts?Exploring emotional and cognitive consequences ofcounterdispositional behavior. Emotion, 12(2),290-303
Like Lieberman &Rosenthal (2001), Zelenski, Santoro, & Whelan (2012) provide acontextual design on dispositional facets in understanding thebehavioral adjustments that introverts may cultivate. Here, theauthors claim that people enjoy acting in an extraverted manner, acase that applies across the introversion-extraversion dimension. Theauthors suggest that introverts may improve their happiness by actingmore in an extraverted manner, but such a behavioral adjustmentcreates potential costs that previous studies have failed toconsider. Using quantitative research and an empirical study, theauthors assess the dispositions of people to act extraverted and theassociated costs to such shifts. Here, the authors suggest thatacting in an extraverted manner creates hedonic benefits irrespectiveof disposition, which shows that introverts can benefit by actingextraverted while extraverts can benefit by adopting introvertedbehaviors. Here, the authors suggest that shifting to acounterdispositional behavior may have its benefits to extraverts orintroverts.
In this regards,the article demonstrate some important aspects to introverts that mayhelp in future research on the behaviors of introverts. The authorssuggest that dispositional extraversion is one of the best indicatorof predicting happiness, particularly when one operationalizehappiness as an experience of positive emotion thus, introverts canbenefit hugely if they adopt extraverted behaviors. In this regards,the authors provide a remarkable principle on the dynamic ofintroversion and how dispositional extraversion plays a predominantrole in helping introverts adjust. Like most studies, Zelenski,Santoro, & Whelan (2012) reveal that people do not develop orcultivate more benefits in acting introverted or extraverted thus,it is not better off or worse off to be more extraverted orintroverted since there exists benefits and costs to the two distinctdispositions. As such, the authors provide a remarkable research onunderstanding introversion and its associated facets. Given thedispositions of introverts, the authors suggest that cultivating adispositional design aligned to extraversion may help introverts, butit does not make the introverts better off.
Zelenski, J. M., Whelan, D. C., Nealis, L. J., Besner, C. M.,Santoro, M. S., & Wynn, J. E. (2013). Personality and affectiveforecasting: Trait introverts underpredict the hedonic benefits ofacting extraverted. Journal of personality and socialpsychology, 104(6), 1092-1108
In this article,the authors provide a contextual approach to explain why introvertscultivate the behavioral aspects they cultivate. As such, the authorstry to demonstrate that trait introverts have a misguided notion onforecasting due to personality differences. Research on dispositionalpersonality suggests that introverts can become happier if they actmore extraverted. However, by conducting a quantitative researchZelenski et al (2013) suggest that introverts have less accuracy,especially in overestimating the effects of associated with theirextraverted comportment. As such, the authors suggest that althoughintroverts can become happier by acting more extraverted, they cannotas they overestimate hedonic costs that do not materialize.
The authorsconduct five studies to understand the level of error amongintroverts in forecasting using student and lab approaches, andasking the participants to imagine acting extraverted. In thisregards, the article provides some interesting literature on the lackof behavioral adjustments among introverts. In addition, theperformance of regression analysis on the collected data demonstratesthat trait introverts enjoy acting more extraverted than in actingmore introverted. In fact, the authors reveal that the forecastingerror manifested in introverts explain the huge differences inpersonality. Here, the authors provide a good piece of literature todraw a contextual design on the way trait introverts unpredicthedonic benefits. Personality context and disposition acrossdifferent levels of introversion help in understanding introverts andcoupled with the insight gained in the article, the creation of abrief on introversion will become effective.