TheUnited States has approximately four types of penitentiaries. Thesecorrectional facilities are: Juvenile, federal prison, county jailand state prison. Generally, county jails are regarded as a facilitythat remands convictsfor a moment before they are transferred to apenitentiary. In addition, county jails are used to detain convictswho have been imprisoned and have a prison term of less than a year.This paper looks at the comparison between Middlesex House ofCorrection jail and a maximum security prison called Souza-BaranowskiCorrectional Center. The Middlesex House of Corrections wasconstructed more than eight decades ago in the town of Billerica. Itonly had 300 inmates but now it can hold up to 1000 convicts.Middlesex House of Correction is a county jail. Souza-BaranowskiCorrectional Center (SBCC) was constructed on 19thof November, 1996 and is located in Shirley Correctional Complex inShirley, Massachusetts. Souza-Baranowski Correctional Center is amaximum security prison.
Thetwo correctional facilities that I have chosen (Middlesex House ofCorrection and SBCC) have a number of differences. WhileSouza-Baranowski Correctional Center (SBCC) is a maximum securityprison, Middlesex House of Correction is a county jail. MiddlesexHouse of Correctionincarcerates prisoners who are serving a sentenceof less than or two and a half years. Its main goal is effectiverehabilitation which helps the inmates become more fruitful peoplewhen they are freed. Souza-Baranowski Correctional Center (SBCC)offers its inmates a full range of scholastic, occupational as wellas substance abuse programming.
Jailand prison culture and subculture are contemporaneous. Prisons andjails are always congested. This leads to poor prisoner to prisonerrelations and in turn promotes institutional practices that generatea demeaning environment (Haney, 2009). There is a lot of violence inthe two facilities due to understaffing, which creates poor moraleand increased turnover [ CITATION Tay08 l 1033 ].Both jails and prisons are meant to impact good morals to theconvicts and make them more productive citizens upon their release.
Jailsperform a significant role in the criminal justice system becausethey isolate convicts from the rest of the public so as to enhancethe safety of both the convicts and the public [CITATION Har09 l 1033 ].The criminal justice system has an opportunity and time of figuringout who should be moved to a prison when inmates are in jails. Theyalso play an important role in shaping the character and behavior ofthe inmates. An inmate in a jail can undergo some trainings andbehavioral change while in there. The criminal justice system needsjails so as to avoid overcrowding the main prisons. This helps thesystem to keep pace with the arriving criminal populaces.
Communitybased correction programs play a vital role. These are programs thatare overseen to deal with persons who have been sentenced either injail or prisons, or are facing sentence. Parole and probation arecommonly the way of community correction programs. Others includehome confinement, community service, day fine programs among others.Jail and prison have an effect on an individual’s psychology andcan cause negative toll on the inmate’s self-esteem whichultimately leads to insouciance in a normal life. These programs helpin solving the problem of congestion in jails and prisons [ CITATION Ezi06 l 1033 ].They as well yield positive results in terms of the offendereventually realizes his or her mistake and accepts it thus helpingother offenders as well as themselves to learn from their mistakes.
Thereare a number of violent behaviors that occur in jails and prisons.One potential violent behavior is confrontation between convicts andstaff. This is so due to lack of proper qualifications in staffmembers. Most inmates undermine the staff thus leading to violence.Understaffing is another factor that leads to violence in jails andprisons. Jails and prisons are so overcrowded. This creates poorsanitation, lack of safety and poor food service. All these factorsaggregate to violence in correctional facilities (Camp, 2002).
Paroleand probation have always been a way of community correction thusmaking it have a significant role both to the community, offenders aswell criminal justice systems. What is the difference between thesetwo terms? Probation is a situation where the court places grownupoffenders under observation in the community.Parole refers toconvictional offenders who are released from penitentiary onconditions to complete the remaining part of their prison term in thecommunity. The role of probation and parole is to involve otherstakeholders such as families, employers as well program serviceproviders in helping to offenders to avoid the offences they hadcommitted earlier. Parole and probation help officers to managecaseloads of adults as well as juvenile convicts. These officers arein charge of assessing every criminal’s dangers as well asessentials in order to cultivate personal plans aimed to deal withtheir criminalconduct. The role of probation is not only to theoffenders but also officers as well.
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