Literature review on suicide

SUICIDE 4

Literaturereview on suicide

Thetopicthatthisresearchis analyzingis suicide,which is one of themaintechniquesthat is beingappliedby individualsto takeaway their livesto a numberof reasons.Theemphasisof thestudy is on two mainaspects,which includethewidelyemployedtechniquesin committingsuicideas wellas thegroupofthosethat are at utmostriskofcommittingsuicide.There are numerousscholars,researchers, governmentagencies,as wellas privateorganizationsthat havemadeseveralattemptsto analyzeissuessurroundingsuicideto helpin understandingof theentirescenario.Thissectionconcentrateson theworksof earlierscholarsby analyzingthree peer-reviewed articlesregardingsuicide.

Thereare numbertechniquesandcriterion thatareemployedby individualsin committingsuicidein themodernday.Joiner (2005) observesthatthere are two broadmechanismsthat individualsemploywhenitcomesto committingsuicide.Theseare thechemicalandphysicaltechniquesthat consist of severalaspectsthat whenputinto practice,will seean individualtakehis ownlifewithin a shortperiod.Heobservesthatindividualsnormallyapplytheinterpersonal-psychological theorythat enhancessuicidalbehaviorwhereindividualstendto diefrom thesesuicidaltechniquesbecausetheyhavetheabilityto usethem effectively.On theideaof themostvulnerablegroupsto suicide,hesingles out theteenagersandwomenwhoare in abusivemarriages.Heobservesthatteenagersfacenumerousproblemsin their lives,which may leadthem to committingsuicide.

Conneret al. (2007) concentrateon suicidalattemptsamong thoseindividualswith opiatedependencein thesociety.Theyarguethatthere are numeroustechniquesthatindividualsin theaboveconditioncan useto commitsuicide.Theybreakthem down from thebroadcategoriesof physicalandchemicaltechniquesby concentratingon electrocution, jumpingfrom a height,hypothermia, hanginganduseof firearmsamong others. Theyobservethatthemostvulnerablegroupwhenitcomesto suicideis theteenagersandotherindividualsthat sufferfrom variousaddictions.Addictionin thiscontextrefersto constantandcontinuoususeof drugslike cocaine andheroin among others. Itfollowsthatsuchscenariosare precededby lowself-esteemamong theusers in thesensethattheyfeelfeweraffectionsfrom peoplecloseto them thusresorting to suicide.

Suicidecan be executedusingvarioustechniqueswherethemostidealonesare hanging,useof firearms,andsuffocation especiallyamong collegestudents(Van Orden et al., 2008). Theygoaheadto arguethatcollegestudentsare themostvulnerableindividualswhenitcomesto suicidalattempts.Collegestudentsfacea numberof challengesrangingfrom pressurefrom their parentsandteachersconcerningacademicperformanceto their owninteractionswithin thecollegesetting.Itis evidentthatthemostof thesestudentsare teenagersanda hostof youngadultsin their earlytwenties whosementalmaturityis stillwanting.Theynormallyresort to suicideas a mechanismof bowingto pressuresurroundingtheir livesandactivitiesat thattime.Theresearchers havealsonotedthatsuicidalactivitiesandattemptsdifferacross semestersdueto a hostreasonsrangingfrom academicto personal.

References

Conner,K., Britton, P., Sworts, L., &amp Joiner, T. (2007). Suicideattempts among individuals with opiate dependence: The critical roleof felt belonging.&nbsp AddictiveBehaviors,32, 1395-1404.

Joiner,T.E., Conwell, Y., Fitzpatrick, K.K., Witte, T.K., Schmidt, N.B.,Berlim, M.T., et al.&nbsp (2005).&nbspFour studies on how past andcurrent suicidality relate even when “everything but the kitchensink” is covaried.&nbsp Journalof Abnormal Psychology,114, 291-303.&nbsp

VanOrden, K., Witte, T., James, L., Castro, Y., Gordon, K., Braithwaite,S., et al. (2008).&nbsp Suicidal ideation in college students variesacross semesters: The mediating role of belongingness.&nbsp Suicide&amp Life-Threatening Behavior,38, 427-435.