MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 10
Week4 Discussion Question
Thereare many features that managers need to know about in order to buildand use information systems successfully. First, organizationalpolitics, culture, environments, and structures are among thesignificant aspects when building information management systems.Information systems can greatly affect the organization structure,culture, and manyother organizational features in which they are usedto interact with or influence each other. Therefore, understandingorganizational feature can enable the manager to build and useinformation systems effectively.McLeodand Schell(2014)argue that understanding the organizational culture is imperativebecause this feature is a powerful restraint on change especially ontechnology change. Any technological change that threatens commonlyheld cultural assumptionusually meets a great deal of resistance.Understanding organizational culture and politicalenvironment cancontribute to effective use of information systems. Organizationstructure and environment differ because of their ultimate differentgoals. Some organizations are small or bigger by design in naturethus recognizing different structures in organization can contributeto the successful incorporation of information systems in anorganization.
McLeodand Schell(2014)argue that all contemporary organizations are specialized,independent, hierarchical, and use clear routines to maximizeefficiency. The hierarchical structure is one of the significantfeatures of an organization that managers need to understand whenbuilding and using information systems.Information systems andhierarchical structure, division of labour and rules, as well as,procedures interact to influence each other. The new informationsystems will affect the goals of organizational across thehierarchical, values, competition, and decision-making. Designinginformation systems to serve the needs of significantorganizationalgroups across the organization hierarchy is imperative. This isbecause IT systems can reduce associated costs across theorganization hierarchy and value chain. IT systems can help managersto use synergies, fundamental competences, and network-basedapproaches to attain a competitive edge(Rainer,&Cegielski,2012). Sinceorganizations consist of multiple business units, use of IT systemscan enable them to achieve extra efficiencies. Therefore,understanding organization features can help managers to leveragetheir core competencies when using information systems.
Routinesand business processes are among the effective features thatmanagersshould take into considerations when building informationsystems in an organization. Routines are standard operatingprocedures that should have defined rules, technique, and practicesvital for coping with virtually all expected situations(McLeod,& Schell, 2014).Allcorporations compromise of discreteroutines, and behaviors, acollection of which makes up a business process. Thebusinessprocessesencompasses the pool of corporateprocedures, whichmakes up the trade industry (McLeod,& Schell,2014).Employeeswho learn routine and business processes become highly productive,efficient, as well as, enable the firm to reduce costs over time andincreases efficiency.Understanding the way business processes work,change or replaced by using information technology system isimperative. This is because it can contribute to the achievement ofgreater efficiency and higher level of customer services. Therefore,it is vital for managers to change individual routines and businessprocesses when using new information systems thus, enabling them toachieve high levels of organizational performance.
Week5 Discussion question
Thereare five stages of IT infrastructure advancement together with thegeneral- purpose mainframe or minicomputer era, the personal computerera, the client/server era, the enterprise computing era, and thecloud-computing era (McLeod,& Schell, 2014).Themainframe and minicomputerare among the earliest states of ITinfrastructure that comprised of a primitive computer that performedcentralized processing tasks. The mainframes are the earliest ITinfrastructure in 1959 to currentuntil the development of thepersonal computer epoch (Laudon,&Laudon,2011).Acceding to McLeodand Schell(2014),the personal computer evolved in 1981 to present and it comprised ofdesktops or laptops that clients schmoozed to a powerful servercomputer. According to McLeodand Schell(2014),the client/server era evolved in 1983 to present. The next state isthe enterprise computing era infrastructure that evolved in 1992 topresent. Immense figures of personal computers connected to the localarea networks predefines the enterprise-computing era. They usestandards and software to connect distinct networks and devices intoan enterprise-wide network to allow flow of information spontaneouslyacross the networks. The last stage is cloud computing and mobiledevices era that evolved in 200 to present.
Anumber of models that deals with technology drivers of ITinfrastructure have evolved overtime. Moore’s law and Mass DigitalStorage are among the drivers that attempt to explain the evolutionof IT infrastructure. The Moore’s law deals with the exponentialupsurge in processing power and waning in the cost of computertechnology (McLeod,&Schell,2014).According to this law, the muscle of microprocessors doubles and thecost of computing divvy up for every 18 months (McLeod,& Schell, 2014).MassDigital Storage (MDS) is another technology driver of ITinfrastructure, which deals with the exponential fall in the price ofstoring data. In this law, the amount of data being stored double ineach year. In the MDS law, the number of kilobytes of data that canbe stored on magnetic media doubles every 15 months (Boddy,Boonstra,& Kennedy,2008).
Metcalfe’slaw of network economics, declining communication costs and theInternet, as well as, technology standards are other technologydrivers of infrastructure evolution. In this law, as network membersincreases, many people want to use it thus, the demand for networkaccess increases.Declining communication cost and the Internet arethe other technology drivers of infrastructure evolution (McLeod, &Schell, 2014).There are more than 1.5 billion Internet users acrossthe globe. Therefore, computing amenitiesdetonates as communicationoutlays fall to a very small number and approach zero when usingcommunication systems. A technology standard is another driver of ITinfrastructure advancement that establishes products compatibilityand the capacity to connect in a network. It releases powerfuleconomies of scale and result in price falloffs thus, designersusually focus on the products assembled to a distinct standard.
Week6 Discussion question
Adatabase management system (DBMS) is an effective system that helpsin solving the problems of traditional file environment (Boddy,Boonstra,& Kennedy, 2008).Itseparates logical and physical data views, as well as, edges betweensolicitations and physical data archives. Designing a databaserequires the use of a logical and physical design (Panneerselvam,2003). Thelogical design models the database from business viewpoint. The DBMSinvolves capabilities and tools organizing, managing, and accessingthe data in the database (ITLEducation Solutions Limited,2012).Thedatabase serves varied aspects by unifying information andcontrolling redundant data. The principle DBMScapabilities compriseofdataaccountability, data glossary, and a data managementdialectal(ITLEducation Solutions Limited,2012).Thedata accountcapability classifiesthe content of information andstructurein the catalogue. The data dictionary is a programmed ormanual file that stores information in the catalogue, includingdefinitions, names, designs, and data accounts elements(McLeod,& Schell, 2014).Thedata managementdialectalis a definitelinguistic for recovering andcontrolling database information.
Therelational DBMS is so powerful because it is capable of organizingand maintaining data in the form of two-dimensional tables(McLeod,& Schell, 2014).Currently,organizations use relation database as the main system for organizingand keeping data in the IT systems.The reason behind using it isthatit is so flexible and accessible.The relational DBMS is so powerfulsince it categorizes data in two-dimensional tables named relationswith rows and columns (McLeod,& Schell, 2014).Each row embodies a record and each column designates a feature ofinformation category(McLeod,& Schell, 2014).Moreover, in each table, there is a key field that identifies eachrecord for retrieval or manipulation. Organization managers cancombine relational database tables easily to deliver dataprerequisite for users, as long as any of the two tables share amutual data element.
Thereare three significant operations of a relational DBMS, which includeselect, project and join operations. Managerscan employ these threeoperations to create useful sets of data. First, the select operationforms a subsection comprising of all records in the folder thatshould meet the specified criteria (McLeod,& Schell, 2014).In other words, this operation designs a subcategory of rows thatshould meet particular criterion. Join operation is another aspect ofa relational DBMS that combines relational tables to offer the userwith adequate data, which is available in the individual tables. Thelast is project operation and this generates a subcategorycomprisingof columns in a table, allowing the user to generate new table thatcomprises only the necessary information (GEczy, Izumi, &Hasida,2014). The designof an organization data model is imperative becauseit reflects the main business processes and decision-makingrequirements. A well-designed relational database should haveattributes for a certain entity. It should attempt toenforcereferentialintegrity principles to ensure that there is arelationship between entities on arelation database.
Week7 Discussion question
Telecommunicationis an effective means of conveying a message or information overdistances. The message may be inform of text, data, telephone calls,video, or images. Many people nowadays use telecommunications toorganize more than one network system into telecommunicationsnetworks(Currie,&Galliers,2003).Asimple network comprises more than one connected processors. Simplenetwork components compriseof network interfaces, computers orprocessors, a connection medium, operating system software, andeither a hub or a switch. The big corporations rely on both privateand public networking infrastructure to support the movement ofinformation across diverse technological podiums. The principalcomponents of telecommunication networks for a big industry comprisesthe traditional mobile system, cellular communication devices, localwireless networks, video-conferencing systems, a business website,intranets, extranets, and a range of local, as well as, wide areanetworks, including the Internet (McLeod,& Schell, 2014).Thisassortment of networks progressed from two primarily different typesof networks including computernetworks and telephone networks.
Thetwo significant principal components of telecommunication networksthat organizations can nowadays distinguish from the perspective oftheir geographical scope are local area networks (LAN) and wide areanetworks (WAN). LAN is a privately held network that joinsprocessors, mostly microcomputers within a building (McLeod,& Schell, (2014). LANsare workgroup computing that guarantee high-speed communicationwithin a restricted area and permits the users to shareamenitiesassociated to it. WAN is a telecommunicationsystem thatcovers a wider area, and it connects all the minicomputers area tothe mainframe to the remote areas (McLeod,& Schell, 2014).It offers the strength through which all processors and terminalnodes connect. They serve to interconnect numerous LANs and can offercertain resources available to a big working environment.
McLeodand Schell(2014)argue that the rise of client/ computing has shaped the modern-daynetworks. Protocols offer a common set of rules that enablecommunication among diverse components in a communication network.Client is among the key networking technologies that distributes muchof computing power to the desktop and plantfloor in a corporation(McLeod,& Schell, 2014).Packet switching makes it more efficient for organizations to usenetwork communications capacity through breaking messages into smallpackets (Li, Peters, Richardson, &Weidenmier, 2012). The messagemoves freely along diverse paths in a network andreconvenes later attheir destinations. Many large industries use packet switching andTransmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) as auniversal communication standard for linking different networks andcomputers. TCP/IP is a set of protocols that has become the mainmodel of attaining connectivity in diverse networks and computers(McLeod,& Schell, 2014).TheInternet uses this connectivity modelto transmit information acrossthe telecommunication networks. The Internet is a universal keynetworking technology, which utilizes the TCP/IP and client/servermodels of computing. For example, in an every computer, there is aunique numeric IP address, and this is where the Domain Name Systemconverts IP address to domain names. This is vital because it allowsusers to specify a domain name to access a computer on the Internet.
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