Researchmethodology entails a systematic way in solving a problem. Itdescribes the science of studying the manner in which a researchbecomes carried out. Research methodology is critical since it helpsin indicating the methods used in research and provides the necessaryknowledge in choosing methods and techniques that are relevant to theproblem under study (Kothari,2005). In this paper, the methodologies relevant to the researchproblem and solution will be discussed. Besides, limitations of theresearch will also be discussed.
Thereare different research methods that are available and relevant to theproblem and solution selected. The problem selected regards whybusinesses should engage in survey research. Although some businesseshesitate on being involved in survey research because of the beliefthat surveys are not accurate and surveys have ethical issues, othershave found a solution to these problems and are reaping the benefitsof being involved in survey research. Therefore, the solution to theproblem is that businesses should engage in conducting surveys. Bothqualitative and quantitative methodologies have been found relevantto the problem and solution selected.
Inqualitative methodology, there are different research methods thatare relevant to the problem and solution selected. One of the methodsentails the use of interviews. This method emerges as the most commonsource of information in studying the problem and obtaining therelevant answer. Interviews usually have different structures ahighly structured style, where questions are usually determined priorto the interview, and the open-ended interview, conversationalformat. Although the highly structured interview can be used, theopen-ended interview that is less structured is the one that isrelevant to the problem and solution selected. In this case, theinterviewer has similar questions to all the participants, but thequestion sequence, wording and follow-up questions may differconsiderably. For instance, while using the method, differentbusinesses became interviewed however, although questions asked tothe CEO’s were the same, they did not follow any given order.Besides, the wording could be different, but questions remainedunchanged. While conducting interviews with the different businesses,video recording and taking notes were considered as the means ofobtaining and keeping information collected from the interviews.Taking the video record helped in taking all the points that theparticipants offered. It is this information that is recorded thatcan be used in analyzing the problem under consideration in order tofind a solution. Interviews have a limitation in that they consume alot of time and are expensive compared to other methods. Besides, attimes, interviews are susceptible to bias. On the other hand,interviews may seem intrusive to respondents unless organized.
Theother method relevant to the problem and solution selected entailsthe use of focus groups. This method is usually viewed as effectivesince the researcher has the capacity of gathering information on theresearch problem from several individuals in one session. When usingthis method, the group is normally homogenous for example, a groupof a given team such as the management team of a certain business ora group of tutors. According to Morgan (1996), interviews throughfocus groups may offer quality controls since participants tend tooffer checks and balances on one another, which seeks to curb extremeor false views that have been aired by a certain group. Because ofthe group setting, members of the group are not fearful in giving outany information. This makes the use focus groups a good methodbecause one can obtain any information, no matter its inability tomention. During the interviews, group members are usually eager tohear what others within the group have to say this is critical sinceit usually stimulates other members in rethinking their own views. Inthe focus group interview, the researcher does not try to persuadethe focus group to reach consensus since this would influence theresults of the interview. When the group members give their views, itis critical to record the information since taking notes can becumbersome. A limitation with the use of focus groups is that theinformation obtained may be susceptible the bias of the facilitator.Besides, discussions may be dominated by a few individuals and doesnot offer valid information at personal level. In addition, theinformation from focus group may not be a representative of othergroups. Moreover, the analysis of data is time consuming requiring aproper plan in advance.
Documentreview is another method that can be used in qualitative methodologyin providing information regarding the problem and solution selected.According to this method, different existing sources such asdocuments, reports and other written artifacts are reviewed with theobjective of collecting verifiable information concerning the problemunder consideration (Marsden &Wright,2010). When using this method, documents to be reviewed arecollected, and then a review of the documents follows. It is afterthe review that the findings from the reviewing process areconsidered for the needs assessment. In order to realize success whenusing this method, it is critical to ensure that the review processis systematic. Besides, in case there are multiple reviewers taskedwith reviewing sources, clear and consistent guidelines must beprovided for examination form. Providing similar guidelines forexamination form ensures that information identified, analyzed anddocumented in a reliable and consistent manner. This method hasseveral limitations one of the limitations is that information inthe documents may tend to represent ideas that are not aligned withthe needs assessment. Besides, the process of obtaining and analyzingthe necessary documents can take a lot of time. On the other hand,when using this method, it is not possible to control the quality ofinformation collected and must rely on the data provided in thedocuments in assessing usability and quality of sources. In addition,information may be inaccurate or incomplete.
Inquantitative methodologies, the only method that is relevant to theproblem and solution selected is the questionnaire method. Thequestionnaire entails a set of queries for gathering information fromindividuals (Denscombe,2007). When using this method, a set of questions are usuallydesigned and distributed to participants through different ways suchas mail or through the web. Besides, sometimes, questionnaires can beadministered through face-to-face interviews, telephone, orelectronically. It is critical to define the objective of the studyand choose the number of participants to engage in a research inorder to come up with a good questionnaire. In addition, it isimportant to consider developing questions, which clearly andprecisely communicate the issue being investigated. A limitation ofthe questionnaires is that respondents may provide answerssuperficially in case a questionnaire consumes a long time tocomplete. Besides, it is not possible to explain points in thequestions, which participants may misinterpret.
Thebest methodology for the study under question entails the use ofinterviews. Interview method stands out to be the best due todifferent reasons. One of the reasons for choosing the interviewmethod is that it can allow collecting information through detailedquestioning. When conducting a study, the more detailed questioningmay be the better because the researcher will be in a capacity tocollect the required information through the detailed questioning.Therefore, this method is critical in helping in the collection ofdetailed information concerning the selected problem and solution.Another reason for choosing the interview method as the best methodfor this study is because it helps in achieving a high response rate.In any study, the chief objective is obtaining information from theparticipants that will help in making conclusions or findingsolutions to the problems under study. This implies that a highresponse rate is critical in a study since it means that most of theinformation presented in a study can act to represent the populationunder consideration (Khan,2011). Hence, through using the interview method, the study underconsideration will be in a position to obtain information that canact as the representative of the population because of the highresponse rate. Besides, another reason for choosing the interviewmethod is because during the study, it is possible to clarifyambiguity and following-up of incomplete answers is also feasible.Sometimes, when carrying out a study, it is not possible to clarifyambiguous questions because it is not possible to encounter with theparticipants face to face however, interviews have the capacity ofexplaining and clarifying any questions that may seem ambiguous torespondents (Sapsford,2006). This is critical in ensuring that the information provided bythe respondents relates to the subject matter. On the other hand,the precise meaning of a question can be clarified when using theinterview method. This implies that individuals with English problemscan have questions simplified in order to generate answers. Thismakes the interview method the best to use in this case study. Inaddition, first hand information is usually collected when using theinterview method. Therefore, in case this method is used, businessesowners and managers are capable of reporting their own experienceswith surveys, which is critical for the study.
Ina study to find reasons why a business should engage in conductingsurveys or the need for involvement in surveys, different researchmethods can be utilized in finding solutions to the problem. Therelevant methods include the use of interviews, focus groups,document review and questionnaire. However, out of these methods,interview method remains the best due to different reasons. One ofthe reasons is due to the ability of the method to have a highresponse rate. The high the response rate, the higher the ability ofobtaining information that represents the target population fromparticipants. Besides, through using the methods, it is possible toprovide clarification to ambiguous questions and putting questions ina manner that the respondents can easily understand. In addition,through using this method, it is possible to use detailed questioningthat can help in fully covering the problem under study.
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Sapsford,R. J. (2006). SurveyResearch.London: Sage Publications.