Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

MinnesotaMultiphasic Personality Inventory

MinnesotaMultiphasic Personality Inventory

MinnesotaMultiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) refers to a psychologicaltest used to assess psychopathology and different personality traits.MMPI is mainly to assess psychopathology and personality of peoplewho have been suspected of having clinical issues, such as mentalillness (Cherry, 2014). MMPI is administered in two forms (includingMMPI-2 and MMPI-2 RF), but MMPI-2 is widely used because ofpsychologists familiarity with it and the wide research baseassociated with MMPI-2 compared to newer versions. MMPI is aprotected instrument that can only be administered and analyzed bytrained psychologists. MMPI-A is a version designed to address thespecific psychological and psychopathological needs of adolescents.

MMPI-2is commonly used by healthcare professionals working in mental healthcare facilities. The test was developed in 1980s following therevision of the first MMPI inventory, which was edited by removal andrewording of some question (Cherry, 2014). However, the MMPI-2 testis used in other fields that are outside the clinical psychology. Thetest is used in custody disputes and criminal defenses in thecriminal judicial system (Cherry, 2014). The test is also used as atoo to screen potential recruits in jobs that are considered to behigh risk. In addition, the MMPI-2 test is used in the process ofassessing the effectiveness of some treatment programs, such assubstance abuse treatment program.

MMPI-2has 567 questions that are answered within a period of about 60-90minutes. The test is administered, analyzed, and interpreted bypsychiatrists or clinical psychologists with specific training on theuse of MMPI-2 test. Although MMPI-2 is considered to be an editedversion, it is not a perfect tool and it should be used together withother tools. MMPI-2 test can be administered to an individualcandidate or in a group. The test can either be scored by the use ofa computer or in hand.

MMPI-Ais a test version specifically designed for adolescents aged between14-18 years. The test was developed and released in 1992 (Butcher &amppope, 2014). His version was designed to enhance the measurement ofpsychopathology, behavior difficulties, and personality amongadolescents. MMPI-A address limitations associated with MMPI-2 whentesting psychopathology and psychology among adolescents. Some of thekey challenges associated with the use of other versions among theadolescent population include lack of suitable norms, lack ofsufficient items in the content, and the problem of extremereporting. MMPI-A contains 478 items and includes 10 of the originalclinical scale 31 items of H. Lingoloes sub-scale, and items onsocial avoidance among other items. The content, clinical, validity,and supplementary scales included in MMPI-A have been shown to have ahigh level of reliability and test-retest reliability as well asinternal consistency. Strengths of MMPIA include the integration ofitems that are relevant to adolescents, application of adolescentnorms, shortened version content, and the inclusion of acomprehensive and clear manual.

Inconclusion, MMPI-2 and MMPI-A are some of the psychological toolsthat are widely used in the assessment of psychopathology andpsychology of human beings, especially in the mental health carefacilities. MMPI-2 is general version that can be used among thegeneral population. MMPI-A, on the other hand, is a speciallydesigned version of MMPI, which addresses the limitation of thegeneral version in evaluating psychopathology as well as psychologyamong adolescents.


Butcher,N. &amp pope, S. (2014). TheMMPI-A in forensic assessment.Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cherry,K. (2014). What is the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory?AboutEducation.Retrieved September 14, 2014, fromhttp://psychology.about.com/od/psychologicaltesting/a/mmpi.htm