MR. KWONS CASE 7
Mr.Drew has been diagnosed from Parkinson diseases. Parkinson diseaseresult from the production of Parkinsonism and results show that mostcases are sporadic although sometimes the diseases can be inheritedfrom family members. Parkinson diseases progress is slowly causingneurological disorder that affects muscle control, balance andmovement. Parkinson disease can be classified in a group called motorsystem disorder. These motor disorders can be associated with adecrease of dopamine-producing brain cells. Parkinsonism is the namegiven to this type of dopamine associated motor disorder. Researchcarried out in the past show that Parkinson’s disease results fromcells been destroyed in particular parts of the stem found in thebrain, especially the crescent-shaped cell mass. This crescent shapedcell mass are known as the substantial nigra.
Causesof Parkinson diseases are
1)Genetic factor which play a major role in early stage of Parkinsondisease. According to research, genetic factors may also take part inthe late stage of Parkinson disease.
2)Environmental factors may also contribute to the cause of Parkinsondisease by triggering the condition of human beings who aregenetically vulnerable to this disease.
Theintervention that Mr. Drew requires is taking medication carbidopa orlevodopa which assists in making a diagnosis. Patient diagnosed withParkinson diseases respond to this medication effectively. Anothereffective intervention for Mr. Drew should increase his coffeeintake, and according to a study carried out, coffee intake reducesthe risk of Parkinson disease to 30% as compared to non-coffeedrinkers.
Themost effective intervention for most patients is the use of drugs,physical therapy and the use of surgical intervention. The aim of thetreatment of disease is to reduce disability and balance thedifficulties associated with the negative effects of the drugsadministered to the patient.
Oneof the symptoms of Parkinson disease is tremor that is characterizedby it occurring at rest rather than when the limb is being used. Itis common for the tremor to start in one arm and eventually spread tothe other side of the arm. In some cases, it occurs in the leg whileothers it occurs in the jaw. In order to eliminate the tremor, thelimb must be put in good use, and due to this the tremor is usuallynot functionally limiting. The recommended treatment for this symptomis the anti- Parkinson’s medications. The study has showed thatanti- Parkinson medications are not effective for some patient.
2)Slowness of Movement
Anothermajor symptom is slowness in movement that may lead to disabling. TheParkinson disease may affect both the arms leading to inability toperform the task involving the arms and the legs which lead to theinability to walk.
3)Walking and Balance Difficulties
Aperson ailing from Parkinson disease has difficulties in walking andbalance. Due to this disease a person may have a tendency of takingquick short steps leading to a shuffling gait.
Finallyanother symptom of Parkinson disease is muscle rigidity which leadsto stiffness in the arms, neck and legs. The best treatment of thissymptom is an anti – Parkinsonism medication.
Oneof the major features of Parkinson diseases is dopamine deficiency,and it assists the body respond to increase in stress and to fight orflight responses. Dopamine is one of the features found in theneurotransmitters’ and in scientific term is known ascatecholamine’s. Reduction of dopamine leads to a negative effectsof the muscles and nerves coordination and control movement. Nervesand muscle coordination and movement is one of the symptomsassociated with Parkinson’s disease.
Thepathology results are important in diagnosing Parkinson diseasesbecause examining the history of Mr. Drew assist in determining theseverity of the disease and examine the risk of aspiration. Thepathology result is carried out by both the doctor and aspeech-language pathologist.
Testcarried out in the pathology test are
study involving modified barium swallow,
Thereare no benefits of CT scans to the treatment of Parkinson’s diseasebecause CT scan does not usually show abnormalities in peoplediagnosed with Parkinson disease. Sometimes the scan carried out doesnot see any visible change in the brain. The CT scans entail the useof specialized x – rays to produce 3-D view of the brain features,and it is important in determining other causes of symptoms. Anotherdisadvantage of CT scan is that the scan can only be used todiagnosis certain cases of symptoms of the Parkinson disease.
Mr.Drew takes Sinemet that a mixture of levodopa and carbidopa and alsohe takes amantadine. Mr. Drew semenat because taking dopaminedirectly is not effective because of the blood-brain barrier. Semenatis administered by Mr. Drew because it goes beyond the blood brainbarrier by playing the role of substantial nigra neurons and changingto dopamine.
Levodopais changed into dopamine that is a form of a chemical in the brain.On the other hand, carbidopa assists in preventing the splitting oflevodopa which is used in the diagnosis of Parkinson diseasesymptoms, for example, tremors, rigidity and poor muscle movement.
Thisdrug has side effects such as sweating, dark urine or saliva and alsostaining of clothes and bed sheet.
Schizophreniais classified as one of the major neurotransmitter deficits and iscaused by the excess of dopamine levels in the part found in thebrain system called ventral striatum. While Parkinson disease isassociated with low level of dopamine that is caused by dopamineneurons. A person with schizophrenia has an acute possibility ofdeveloping Parkinson diseases because a person with schizophrenia hasa characteristic of a movement disorder same as the one experiencedby a person suffering from Parkinson disease. Research indicates thatsymptoms related to Parkinson diseases developed from a person ailingfrom schizophrenia.
Schizophreniacan be inherited genetically and according to research there numerousof genetic abnormalities observed in schizophrenia.
Someof infectious factors that schizophrenia are crowded condition. Thisresults from the increased number of people living in the cities thanin the countryside.
Psychologicalfactors such as pressure and influence may lead to increase ofschizophrenia symptoms.
Someof the risks factors that lead to the development of schizophreniadiseases are age, gender and intelligence.
5)Culturaland Geographic Factors
Schizophreniadiseases affect mostly people who are at low socioeconomic statusespecially in developing countries.