OSI Model Protocol

OSIModel Protocol

OSIModel Protocol

HowOSI protocols are used to allow data communication to take place

OSI(Open System Interconnection) refers to an ISO standard forcommunication networks and it defines a networking framework, whichis required for implementing protocols, in seven layers. These layersinclude physical, data link, network, transport, session,presentation, and application levels (Latham, 2009). OSI enhancescommunication between two different systems regardless of theirunderlying architecture. In this model, data or network communicationis defined into the aforementioned layers, which are commonly groupedinto network, application, and transport. The first fourlayers-physical, data link, network, and transport,-play a key roleproviding end-to-end services that are required for the transfer ofdata between two systems. In other words, these layers provideprotocols that boost communication network necessary in the linkageof two computers. The other three layers-session, presentation, andapplication- play an immense role in providing application servicesnecessary for information exchange. Undeniably, these three layerscreate room for two applications to interact with each other usingvarious services provided by their respective operating systems.According to Latham (2009), OSI model outlines the interaction thathelps in putting all protocols in place. In this model, control isdistributed from one level/layer to the next it starts with theapplication layer up to the physical one. Upon the completion of thesequence, the control work its way up to the ladder.


  1. Application level: it allows the identification of communication partners, constraints on data syntax, user privacy and authentication, and quality of service.

  2. Presentation layer: play a key role in converting both incoming and outgoing data from one presentation format to another. It also takes care of encoded data as well as help in the design data to be transmitted across a network.

  3. Session layer: this layer helps in setting up, coordinating, and termination of dialogs, conversations, and exchanges between the applications at each end.

  4. Transport: this layer is significant in managing the end-to-end control as well as in checking error. It also ensures that there is complete transfer of data.

  5. Network: it handles all tasks that involves routing, internetworking, jamming control, advancing, steering, container sequencing, and forwarding it facilitates the production of computer generated circuits (Latham, 2009). Computer generated circuits enhances the transfer of information from one node to the next

  6. Data-link layer: this layer consists of two sub layers-Media Access Control and Logical Link Control layers. The Media Access Control sub-level control the admission and transmission of information within the system while the Logical Link Control plays the role of regulating frame organization, examination of various mistakes, and movement control. It helps in the furnishing of transmission protocol management and knowledge. Besides, it does bit-stuffing for various strings as well as provides synchronization for the physical level.

  7. Physical layer: it enhances the conveyance of the bit stream through the network at both mechanical and electrical levels. In other words, this layer helps the hardware to send and receive data on any carrier network like, cables and sound cards.

HowOSI protocols apply to health care organizations

OSIprotocols apply in health care organization since they play anenormous role in the exchange of clinical data in the provision ofhealthcare. They help speed up the flow of patient information fromthe office of the healthcare provider to outpatient and hospitalsfacilities (Wager, Lee, &amp Glasser, 2009). Similarly, theseprotocols help in establishing of sustainable and effective modelsfor struggling health organizations. To enhance this, these protocolsensures privacy and security of all patients and services offered byvarious healthcare organizations.

Theseventh layer of OSI plays a key role in alleviating the problem ofcommunication that often exists between hospitals and otherhealthcare providers. This layer accomplishes this role by creatingthe framework for sharing, exchange, integration, and retrieval ofelectronic health information. Wager et al (2009) acknowledges thatthe interface of this level also provides a secure and encrypted wayof transferring files. This interface, further cut down the costs forhealthcare facilities since it is a global interface standard. Again,this interface play an enormous role in improving work flow inhealthcare organizations since it help doctors and other physiciansto concentrate on their chief business activities as well as give outquality healthcare services to their patients (Kretschmer,&ampNerlich, 2007). Likewise, this interface helps medical professionalsto make reference to a uniform document that help in the provision ofa common understanding between two systems instead of having to writespecifications from scratch whenever there is need to send data toboth systems.

Howthe different types of network designs affect the transfer of medicaldata

Transferof medical data is largely impacted by the different types of networkdesigns. Network designs ranges from small local area network (LAN)to complex and layered one. The former are mostly used in homes whilethe later find their use in corporate settings. Information systemsfacilitate the distribution of information to groups of network usersaccessing the same application in different locations or places.Managers in various healthcare organizations view and control data aswell as make use of different tools to get any recorded andtransmitted information that they may require.


Kretschmer,R &amp Nerlich, M. (2007). TheImpact of Telemedicine on Health Care Management.Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Latham,R. (2009). Networks,Information, and the Rise of the Global Internet.Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Wager,A.K Lee, F.W, Glasser, J.P. (2009). HealthcareCare Information Systems: A Practical Approach for Health CareManagement.New York: John Wiley &amp Sons.