Peacekeeping

TheSecurity Council of the United Nations is the fundamental body inmaking the vision on promotion of peace and security true[CITATION Kaz98 p 3 l 1033 ].Global security is an important necessity that encourages developmenteconomically and socially through enhancement of a proper governance.It is the mandate of the Security Council to inquire when and wherethe UN peacekeeping operation should come in. It operates disasterand crisis control mechanisms around the world on an individual casebasis. Several factors are accounted for in relation to internationalrelations and diplomatic measures. In case of conflict, mediation bythe UN officials is a vital necessity that should be enhanced. Thechanging duty of the United Nations is as follows: Conflict andprevention, women, peace and collective security, disarmamentexercises, peace building and negotiations, and the development ofnew diplomatic arrangement that promote peace, stability and thewelfare among others.

Theorganization of the Council has enabled it to function continuouslywithout disregard for human commitment. The fact that allrepresentatives of its members must be present at all times in theCouncil’s headquarters is a major step toward promoting peace andsecurity. In addition, the creation of subsidiary organs, committees,and tribunals provide the necessary tools and approaches for theCouncil to execute its mandate effectively. Indeed, subsidiary organshave supported the Council’s mandate, for instance, ICTY and ICTR(International Criminal Tribunals for Yugoslavia and Rwandarespectively). On the other hand, the military staff committee,standing committee and ad hoc bodies have helped the Council inaddressing procedural questions and sanctions. However, PBC(Peacebuilding Commission) is an integral part of the Council thatsupport conflict intervention efforts and promotion of peace. Withother committees and peacekeeping operations, the Commission is aneffective part of the Council that aids promoting peace and securityand ensuring that peace is maintained in areas where conflicts occur. In this regards, the assessment of the Security Council issignificant in understanding how its structure has aided in promotingpeace and security.

PeaceKeeping

TheCouncil carries out peacekeeping and political operations thatconstitute of civilian personnel, military, and police, and involvesseveral stages. The measures taken before making a decision on theintervention for a peace operation includes:

  1. Whether ceasefire exists in the region in place and the parties are committed to the peace process aimed at reaching a political settlement.

  2. Whether there is existence of the relevant political goal and whether it is possible for its manifestation in the mandate.

  3. Whether there exists a precise mandate to be undertaken by the UN operation is formulated.

  4. Whether there are safety measures for the UN security personnel. That includes the particular reasonable guarantees are obtainable from the main parties or factions in respect to their safety of the security of UN personnel.

In1948, the UN Security Council made its first peace keeping anddiplomatic intervention to end the Israel-Arab war through the moveby the UNSC formulation of the armistice agreement. From that time,there have been 64 peacekeeping missions, of which the majority ofthem have been successful. They are aimed at meeting the resolutionfor peace between the rivals. Many conflicts ended either throughdirect UN mediation or by the efforts of others acting in UN support.

Forces

Dueto increased conflict especially in the African countries, the UNconsiders using the military personnel under the command of the UN.They are expected to behave in a non-partisan manner in reference tothe regional conflict. The success of the mission of the forces isdependent on the nature of conflict. For example, they do notexperience success especially in regions where one side is theaggressor. The authority of peacekeeping is given by the UN for aperiod ranging between 3-6 months which is renewable depending on thesituation. The most memorable instance where peacekeeping missionshave taken place is the Darfur region, DRC conflict, and Sierra Leone

Roleof Operations

  1. Conflict Resolution

Countriesdo turn to the UN when violence and conflict emerges in the hope thatits claims would be considered and valued by the internationalcommunity. When such controversy has reached a crisis point becominga threat to the international peace it may come before the UN on theinitiative of the appropriate organs[CITATION Akr11 p 780 l 1033 ].The resolutions of conflict depend on contact, discussion andnegotiation. The UN has been most useful as an informal meetingground. The permanent delegates of the member-states have theopportunity to meet an obtrusively, without embarrassing publicityand initial talks on issues dividing their countries. On numerousoccasions those who held the office of secretary general used theirinfluence to promote solutions and assist in the settlement ofdisputes when all other avenues seemed closed. The most successfulintervention of the millennium is when Koffi Anan, who is the formerUN Secretary General, led mediation talks to save Kenya’s 2007Post-election violence that led to creation of grand coalitiongovernment led by the winning party and the opposition[ CITATION Bau13 l 1033 ].

  1. Conflict Prevention

Itremains one of the highest objectives of the UN. In today’s world,prevention action extends well beyond additional preventive diplomacythat is involved in a broad presentation of UN entities workingacross a wide range of disciplines[CITATION Van00 p 17 l 1033 ].Poverty eradication and development, human rights in association withthe rule of law, elections, and development of democraticinstitutions that take control of small arms.

  1. Protection of Women and Children

Whenwomen a minority of combatants and perpetrators of war, theyincreasingly suffer the greatest arm, the UN security councilrecognizes that including gender and women`s perspectives in decisionmaking can strengthen prospects for sustainable peace in theunanimous adoption of resolutions relating to women, peace andsecurity. These remarkable resolution mechanisms will specificallyaddress the current situation of women in cases of armed conflictwhere they call for their involvement at all levels of decisionmaking on conflict resolution and peace building[ CITATION Uni10 l 1033 ].

  1. Disarmament

Disarmamentexercises by the UN have been a major step towards achieving peaceresolution in war torn regions especially involving armed conflict.That is aimed at influencing the number of such weapons used in therival parties and eventually destroying chemical and nuclear weapons.The use of biological weapons is banned by the Security Council dueits massive nature of destruction such weapons could cause. Thetreaty commonly known as non-proliferation of nuclear weapons is oneof the most universal of all multilateral disarmament that wascarried out in 1970[CITATION UNW l 1033 ].

  1. Peace Building

Theconflict occurrence in the recent years has caused the UN to focus asnever before on peace building efforts to reduce the country’sdanger of lapsing or relapsing to a conflict base by formulatingstrong national capacities for the conflict management and resolutionmechanisms and to set the foundation for sustaining peace anddevelopment. Building lasting peace in war torn societies is amongthe most daunting challenges for global peace and security. The UNestablishes the peace building commissioning in 2005 to betteranticipate and respond to challenges of peace building. [CITATION UNO06 l 1033 ]

Conclusion

Themaintenance of peace and security in most countries by the Missionsof the Council reveals the capacity of the Council’s structure. TheUnited Nations clearly bears the responsibility of internationalpeace and in ensuring that the security of member states is of greatconsiderations. As a body with different agencies its agencies have acore mandate in the maintenance of international peace and security.The presence of different organs, tribunals, and committees, and thecontinuous guard on its mission reflects the union strength incarrying out its mandate. As such, the structure of the SecurityCouncil is effective in carrying out the mandate the Council intendsto take. This is shown clearly by the above explanations. However,role of the UN in the maintenance of peace and security,international wide keeps on changing due to technologicaladvancement. As aforementioned, the structure of the Council isorganized and the different organs allow the Council to execute itsmandate effectively.

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Van-der-Merwe, H.W. Peacemaking in South Africa: A life in conflict resolution. Cape Town: Tafelberg., 2000. Print .