PHYSICS OF OUR SUN 7
Physicsof Our Sun
Physicsof Our Sun
Theimportance of the sun cannot be gainsaid as far as the existence ofevery living thing in the universe is concerned. Indeed, scientistshave determined that the sun, around which every planet (both knownand unknown) orbits, is the source of energy and light. It has wellbeen acknowledged that the sun generates varied types of energy thatare responsible for the sustenance of life on earth. Without thisenergy, a large proportion or every life form that is known on earthwould cease to exist (Tabak,2009).Such an occurrence would drastically alter the established lifecycles, as well as food chains, while kick-starting an entirely newprocess of evolution. However, questions have been raised regardingthe manner in which the sun produces light and energy. This isespecially considering that it gives out 3.8 x 10^33 ergs/sec or 3.8x 10^26 watts of power, which would be equal to 3.8 x 10^26 joulesper second. Numerous theories have been crafted regarding the mannerin which this energy or light is produced.
Scholarshave acknowledged that the light that is currently seen or reachingthe earth in the current times was produced by the sun more than100,000 years ago.
Numerousforms of energy are generated in the sun. the generation of thisenergy initially starts at its core. Like a large number of stars,the sun is mainly composed of hydrogen. So hot and compressed is thesun’s core that vast amounts of hydrogen atoms coalesce or sticktogether. Researchers note that its interior is a form ofthermonuclear bomb with fusing material that is composed of hydrogenatoms under immense temperature and pressure that is controlled atgiant scales. As a result of the vast amounts of particles thatinteract at extremely high energies, the sun’s core produces anelectromagnetic field that assists in the sun’s maintenance for avery long time/. In the sun, there exists trillions of particles thatare constantly rotating and colliding, in constant fusion andfission, primarily with the use of hydrogen ions to modify them intohelium ions in chain reactions (Tabak,2009).On the same note, there are varied layers that may be identified withdifferent temperatures, behavior, density and pressure. These includethe solar corona, the chromosphere, the photosphere, the conventionzone, the radiative zone and the thermonuclear core. Of particularnote is the fact that the plasma is transparent in its radiation.
Thethermonuclear core incorporates a spherical shape as a result of thegravitational action on the particles that compresses them to thecenter. It has a radius of 170,000 km, which amounts to about 25% ofthe sun’s radius and about 10% of its mass. Further, it is 530,000km deep from the surface of the sun. The most fundamental or centralcomponent of the core already incorporates 60% helium. As much asabout 99% of the sun that is generated by the sun is produced fromthis place in the form of shortwaves that are highly energized, nofusion products from the center eventually get to the photosphere.
Scientistshave noted that at the sun’s core, all atoms are pulled to thecenter by the gravitational force. This results to immense pressure(amounting to about 340 billion the earth’s atmosphere), whichessentially produces immense rubbing and vibration of particlesthereby enabling temperature to reach well over 15 million ° C. Ofparticular note is the fact that matter at this time or in in thislayer comes in the form of ultra-dense plasma. Every particle in thesun’s core comes with its own rotation (Tabak,2009).Through the addition of the emitted charges produced by all theparticles as an enormous electromagnetic field produced by therotations in the sun’s core. This electromagnetic field seeks toreturn through the poles. However, since the particles are so closetogether, they add to each other so as to produce an electromagneticplasma field around the sun’s core.
Theradiative zone may include the core, thereby making up about 580,000km and accounting for about 80% of the sun’s radius. This layermakes up about 410,000 km in thickness if the core is not considered.It also has an enormous compression, which is considerably less dense(20 tons/m3 to 200 kg/m3). However, the energy and pressure emanatingfrom the core made up of energized atoms produces vibrations therebygenerating short electromagnetic wavelengths that eventuallytransport light and heat to the sun’s surface. It is worth notingthat the layer is highly ionized as it incorporates helium andhydrogen. It obtains the electromagnetic radiation from the sun’snucleus, which enables heat to be transported to the top layersthereby sustaining a tendency for strong emissions at the sun’scenter and towards its poles (Tabak,2009).High temperatures ranging from 10 million ° C to 2 million ° C atthe topmost layers are maintained alongside high pressures amountingto 225 billion Earth atmospheres to 450 billion Earth atmospheresthereby ensuring that the plasma material is in a constant state ofuniform rotation behavior, which is assumed to be considerably slowerthan the nucleus. Between the convention and the radiative zone,there exists a layer referred to as tacholine, which has a depth ofabout 150,000 km and a 30,000 km thickness. This region hasconsiderably lower density and pressure. This layer’s mass has agaseous or liquid behavior. Due to the electromagnetic field thatexists at the sun’s core where there is the largest concentratedemission of energy and particles, a bump emerges at its equatorestablishing an enormous turbulence at the center, thereby resultingin a differential rotation at the sun’s center that has a fasterrotation speed compared to the poles (Lüsted,2013).This results in a chaotic heat convection movement, in which highervibrating particles get to the highest portions in which theygenerate their particles, as well as high energy protons to the sun’ssurface. Once they are at the surface, they lose their energy and getback to the lower areas so that they can be re-energized by theelectromagnetic radiation. This, essentially, results in thegeneration of strong particles whose vibrations as they rub againsteach other translate to heat (Lüsted,2013).
Justbeneath the photosphere is the convection layer, which has athickness of about 150,000 km and a depth of about 500 km. At thislayer, the pressure becomes suddenly reduced thereby allowing for adrop in temperature from about 2 million° C to 6000 ° C. It isworth noting that matter, at this time, remains in the form of plasma(which is primarily hydrogen ions). Convection processes take placewhere the spin columns produce vast amounts of heat that get hotmaterials to the sun’s photosphere, while the other ionized atomsget back so as to be re-energized at the lower layers (Hough,2006).The turns experienced in this layer produce electromagnetic radiationthat is perpendicular to the sun’s surface, which adds to the sun’smacro-electromagnetic emissions with varying ultra-energy protons’behavior.
Asthe sun’s thinnest layer, the photosphere has a depth of between100km and 500km and a density that ranges from  0.2 to 0.0002kg/m3. This is, essentially, the visible part of the sun and hastemperatures averaging between 6000 ° C and 4500 ° C. The layer isextremely transparent to protons with certain waves and has beenshown to emit persistent radiation spectrums. Further, the layer iswholly gaseous as there exists virtually no pressure and nothingwould land on it. This layer has sunspots, which are in 1000 ° K to1500 ° K colder parts compared to other parts of thephotosphere (Hough,2006).It is noted that the umbra (darker inner parts) are way cooler at(4,000 ° K) and have lighter regions called penumbra surroundingthem and having 5,600 ° K. The magnetic field of the sun establishesthe plasma sunspots, columns’ direction alongside the heat producedby friction, as well as the sun’s interactions. Sunspots exist inareas where the sun’s magnetic field has the highest rate. Everysunspot comes with its own magnetic pole. A reduction in the sunspotsemission results in the cooling off of the earth as there would be adecrease in the solar output (Lüsted,2013).On the other hand, an increase in sunspots results in an increase inthe earth’s temperatures. The sun’s least dense layer called“chromosphere” (0.000005 kg/m3) is always in plasma state thatbehaves like gas. While it has around 2500 in thickness and enormousvolume, it has lower pressure. At this layer, the temperatures wouldgo higher to 2 million ° K, while the solar phenomena takes placewith ionized helium and hydrogen atoms having peak prominence. Inhigh solar activity periods, the sun carries out coronal massejection where solar plasma of 10×10-9 tons is emitted intospace at speeds of about 1000 km per second. These have the capacityto modify the earth’s magnetic environment if directed to the same(Hough,2006).
Thesolar corona has 1×10-12 kg/m3 in density and is located in thesun’s electromagnetic field. This portion is made up of helium andhydrogen atoms, which have high temperatures and touch the sun’schromosphere which is 1 million ° C. the chromosphere are ionized toplasma, with the heat having large volumes and high density, whilethe particles are charged so as to move in varying speed energy. Ininstances where the chromosphere’s ions are issued sufficientlyfast, they eventually form a solar wind. This is electromagneticfield extending more than 70 million kilometers to the space andincorporates neutrinos, gamma rays, photons, positrons and electronsthat move at average speeds of between 400 km/sec and 700 km/sec inevery direction hitting the moons’ and planets’ atmospheres. Thisis, essentially, the nuclear fusion process by which the sun producesenergy and light that illuminates the earth and other planets orrather the entire universe.
Hough,T. P. (2006). Solarenergy: New research.New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Lüsted,M. A. (2013). Nuclearenergy.Minneapolis, MN: ABDO Pub. Co.
Tabak,J. (2009). Solarand geothermal energy.New York: Facts On File.