Police History, Styles, and Issues


PoliceHistory, Styles, and Issues

PoliceHistory, Styles, and Issues

Policeagencies, both federal and state, give first priority to the safetyof everyone in a society. Although the police agencies arerestricted by jurisdictions, the boundaries do not restrict lawenforcers from one area to serve people from other regions. Theobjective of this essay is analyzing the police historicaldevelopment and its significance. The paper will also discuss thefunction of the law enforcement agencies that make the Department ofHomeland Security jurisdiction.

Thehistorical development of police agency and their jurisdiction

Thehistorical development of police agency started in London, England.The agencies were key elements of the England criminal justice systemback in the 18thcentury period. In early eighteenth century, the citizens wereresponsible of maintaining security at community level. However, thecommunity police received neither special training nor compensationfor the services they rendered. The Metropolitan America formalizedpolice work in 1840s by introducing compensation for the services.The police agencies offered a variety of services such as crimeprevention, and post crime recognition and recovery. The officersreceived compensation because they offered full-time service. TheAmerican Frontier entrepreneurs popularized the police force throughprivate security to reduce theft, violence, and guard the traders’personal merchandise. In territories such as Indian land, vigilantesand bounty hunters among other self-declared security groups acted asinformal law enforcers. It was not until 1920’s that professionalpolicing dedicated on crime control and law enforcement (Palmiotto,1999).

Thestandardized policing had no political and social serviceaffiliation. In addition, it included standardized functions such asdrug units, traffic law enforcement, equipment maintenance, andemergency provision among other unique purposes. The uniquefunctions determine police agencies. On the other hand, thejurisdiction of the police agencies can be restricted in local stateor national limits. Police agencies that are limited to local statejurisdiction have smaller budgets, resources, and staff (Palmiotto,1999).

Thelaw enforcement agencies under the jurisdiction of the Department ofHomeland Security and their responsibilities

UnitedStates Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)

MakesAmerica immigrants friendly through offering precise and valuableinformation to potential clients, giving citizenship and immigrationbenefits, enhancing citizenship awareness, and maintainingimmigration integrity (Department of Homeland Security, 2014).

UnitedStates Customs and Border Protection (CBP)

Containsintricate components intended preventing terrorists and illegalweapons from getting into the US. Additionally, it supervisestraveling and trade while implementing established U.S policies suchas drug laws and immigration.

UnitedStates Coast Guard (USCG)

Thisis an armed military unit responsible for protecting the maritimeenvironment, economy, and borders. It also assists in saving peoplewho get in danger in marine environments.

FederalEmergency Management Agency (FEMA)

Unitesfirst responders and citizens to ascertain that they collaborate inimproving, building, and sustaining their capacity to protectagainst, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from allhazards.

FederalLaw Enforcement Training Center (FLETC)

Offerlong-term career training to the law enforcers to ascertain they areprepared to execute their duties proficiently and safely.

UnitedStates Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)

Enhancespublic safety and homeland security via civil and criminal executionof federal regulations governing immigration, border control, trade,and customs

TransportationSecurity Administration (TSA)

Guardsthe nation’s transportation system to guarantee autonomous movementfor both commerce and people

UnitedStates Secret Service (USSS)

ProtectsUSA’s payment systems and financial infrastructure for maintainingthe uprightness of the economy protects NationalSpecial Security Events, national leaders, designated sites,government, and visiting heads of states (Departmentof Homeland Security, 2014).


Incharge of preparing Department appropriations and budgets,procurement, accounting and finance, funds expenses facilities andequipment, information technology systems, human resources, as wellas the tracking and identification of performance measurements.

NationalProtection and Programs Directorate (NPPD)

Taskedwith a responsibility of risk-reduction using a combined approachthat covers both virtual and physical threats, as well as affiliatedhuman factors

Scienceand Technology Directorate (S&ampT)

Aresearch and development wing offers local, federal, and state withappropriate capabilities and technology for protecting the homeland

Officeof Health Affairs (OHA)

Linksthe medical activities within DHS to ascertain suitable response andpreparation to incidents that have medical value

Officeof Intelligence and Analysis (I&ampA)

Integratesintelligence and information from several sources to establish andevaluate both present and prospective risks to the United States.

Officeof Operations Coordination and Planning

Tracksroutine security status in the US and links departmental activitiesand with HomelandSecurity Advisors, governors, critical infrastructure operators, andlaw enforcement partners available in above 50 key urban regionscountrywide (Departmentof Homeland Security, 2014).

Officeof Policy

Createspolicies and manages coordination for the DHS. It offerssynchronized, centralized focus to the augmentation of theDepartment-wide long-term planning to guard the US.

Primarypurposes of police patrol

Policepatrols assist the police to know the actions that suit the policiesof an agency, thereby supervising service delivery to a community.Some of the key functions of the patrols include crime prevention. The police may inspect or question suspects with respect topreventing accidents and crimes, delinquency-oriented situations,public order maintenance, and discovering new hazards (Palmiotto,1999).

Patrolsalso offer emergency services. For example, the coast guard patrolsare responsible for responding to maritime accidents that requirequick assistance. On the other hand, they do respond to trespassingor illegal trade ships attempting to get into American nationalwaters (Palmiotto, 1999).

Patrolsassist in crime prevention, they collaborate with the citizens toknow about potential crime areas. Their presence often deters crimes. They also assist in maintaining public order. Police officerspresence acts as a symbol of authority thereby, enhancing order(Palmiotto, 1999).

Otherfunctions of the police patrols include enhancing good relationshipbetween the department and the citizens, gathering and deliveringgrassroots information to relevant organizational componentsinvestigating incidents, crimes, conditions, and incidents includingapprehending offenders (Palmiotto, 1999).

Therole of police in contemporary society

Oneof the roles of police in the modern society includes enforcing lawand order. The police can use force to compel unruly peopleinterfering with peace, state security, or other citizens’ welfare. Second, law enforcers control crime through tracking thieves oridentifying potential crime in advance. They maintain peace througharresting, prosecuting, and incarcerating people that risk people’speace (Berg, 1999).

Issuesfacing today`s police departments

Policedepartments often experience challenges such as governance. Officersholding various positions often contest over power issues. Similarly,the roles of different administrative officers and their jurisdictionare often unclear (Berg, 1999).

Second,various departments are often strained by high financial cuts. Theallocated budgets are often inadequate for catering for all theforces expenses. As the police departments grow in size, thegovernments are forced to emphasize on departments to developinfrastructure that would ensure that the available finances are usedeffectively (Berg, 1999).

Third,the resources required for detecting, investigating, and deterringcrimes are either inadequate or unavailable. For instance, the cars,skilled personnel, and technology for combating cybercrimes are somemajor issues facing various police departments (Berg, 1999).

Lastly,the ability of the forces to detect and prevent crimes in advance isbecoming more complex since thieves are also using advancedtechnology to execute crimes almost unnoticeably (Berg, 1999).


Departmentof Homeland Security. (2014). DepartmentComponents.Official website of the Department of Homeland Security, Web.Retrieved on September 16, 2014 fromhttp://www.dhs.gov/department-components

Berg,B. L. (1999). Policingin modern society.Boston, Mass. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.

Palmiotto,M. (1999). Communitypolicing: A policing strategy for the 21st century.Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen.