POLICEMEN OF THE WORLD 8
Policemenof the World
Policemenof the World
Afterthe World War I, the US emerged as a powerful military state with acapacity to control the internal policies of sovereign countries. Ithas the financial capital, personnel, and military technology itrequires suppressing military conflict that risk the life of itscitizens or oppositions that may hinder its ability to promote itspolitical and economic interests. The original objective ofintervening in foreign politics was to maintain peace and democraticleadership throughout the world. However, the US intrusion in theinternal matters of other nations has caused instability and anarchyin the nations. This implies that the foreign policy the US passedafter WWII of maintaining peace coexistence has beencounterproductive and unable to attain its goals.
TheAmerican Civil War extended from 1861 to 1865. The US introducedvarious foreign policies that it still enforces presently. After theCivil War, the policymakers declared that everyone in the country,including the former slaves, had equal rights to liberty just astheir masters. The United States was formed by various sovereignstates through declaration of equality to every citizen thereby itcould not exist as the biggest slaveholding nation across the world(Nye, 2002). To ensure the freedom of everybody in the US, thepolicymakers introduced democracy administration. Although thedemocracy was originally practiced within the US, the nation beganimposing it to foreign nations after adopting the policy ofinterventionism. In 2011, the US participated in the ousting ofMuammar Gaddafi in Libya because he was allegedly an obstacle to theestablishment of a democratic administration (Herring, 2008).
In2014, the US minister of States, John Kerry, embarked on a mission tobroker a ceasefire between the Israel-Hamas conflict. After the CivilWar, the US became the benchmark of political stability throughoutthe world. In the 1940s, after abolishing the policy of isolationism,the US has been acting as a key arbitrator among warring nations(Herring, 2008).
US’rise to a world super power policeman
Oneof the factors that have made the US become a world super powerpoliceman include its strong political stability. Since 1865, the UShas enjoyed political stability. The democratic policies provide thecitizens with an effective strategy for addressing contentious issuesthat may destabilize the nation (Papp et al., 2005).
Second,America experienced tremendous economic growth from the earlytwentieth century. During the industrial revolution, America supplieda wide variety of goods in the international market. For instance,during the WWI and WWII, a large percentage of the weapons, food,warplanes, and ships were manufactured in the United States. The highdemand for American goods boosted the nation’s economic growththereby, providing it with the capital it required establishingmilitary bases internationally (Papp et al., 2005).
Third,the invention of the atomic bomb provided the US with the militarypower that it could use to defeat its major competitors such as theSoviet Union, Japan, and the Germany. The visionary US presidentsused the military power they had to advance diplomatic relations thatenabled the country to control key decisions that other countriesmake (Papp et al., 2005).
Incidentssince World War II where America has taken on a policing role
Oneof the policing roles the US has undertaken includes the Korean Warbetween 1950 and1953. The SouthKorean/U.S. forcesfought against the communistKorean/Chinese forces.The war was characterized by extreme atrocities, and the USthreatened to destroy North Korea with atomic weapons twice. The USintended to overthrow the communist government that presently rulesNorth Korea (Talentino, 2005).
In1958, the US deployed Marinestosuppress the Lebanonrebellion duringthe MiddleEast Crisis.On the other hand, the US cautioned Iraq to refrain from attackingKuwait otherwise, it would have been attacked with nuclear weapons.The crisis preceded the crash of the US foreign policy with the Arabnationalists that were supporting monarchies in the region(Talentino, 2005).
OnDecember 21, 1989, President Bush ordered OperationJust Causein Panama. The aim of the intervention was to protect the Americancitizens in the country, as well as capture General Noriega. Theinvasion was recalled by February 13, 1990 after the US militarycaptured General Manuel Noriega, the former head of state, andrestored peace in Panama (Talentino, 2005).
Drivingforces that fueled international policy decisions involving theinternational incidents outlined previously
The1950-1953 Korean began as a civil war between North and South Korea.North Korea formed a communist administration while South Koreacreated a nationalist administration. The UN and the USA supportedthe South Korea nationalist government because the northerncommunists were quickly advancing southwards. On the contrary, ThePeople’sRepublic of Chinaand theSovietssupported the communistNorthto defeat the Southern alliance. The July 27, 1953 armistice signedby the UN, PRC, and DPRK asserted that the South and North Korea’snew border would be situated close to the 38th parallel preceded theend of the conflict. The treaty was a ceasefire that advocatedformation of demilitarizedzone(DMZ) at the demarcation line. Both North and South Korea could alsopatrol the borderline. In addition, the treaty also pushed for theformation of a league of neutral nations that facilitated release ofprisonersof war(POWs) to their preferred destinations. The Geneva Conference of 1954ended the South versus North Korean war (Herring, 2008).
OnJuly 15, 1958, President Eisenhower authorized the Operation Blue Batafter a Muslim versus Maronite Christians civil war threatenedPresident Camille Chamoun’s regime. Chamoun failed to breakdiplomatic ties with the western allies during the Suez Canal Crisis.In addition, he supported the Baghdad Pact, which threatened Islamicnationalism. Gamal Abdel Nasser, the Egyptian president, in cahootswith Syria, formed theUnited Arab Republic (UAR)with the intention to topple Chamoun (a Christian) (Herring, 2008).Chamoun requested military back up from the United States to preventtoppling of his administration. The crisis ended in 1958 after RashidKarami, and the LebaneseSunni Prime Ministerestablished a national reconciliation government. The US militarybolstered Chamoun’s government against the international communismfor three months before his term ended, and the new elections werecalled. After the prime minister had established a Muslimadministration, the political unrest was broken (Nye, 2002).
TheOperationJust Causewas a US invasion in Panama with the aim of arresting Manuel Noriega.Noriega was a CIA informant in the Panama Canal from 1960s and 1980s.The CIA paid him up to $200,000 to prevent drug peddling. However, hewas receiving significant amounts of cash from drug peddlers to helpin laundering drug money. In addition, he protected the drug dealersfrom being investigated by the DEA. In mid-1980s, Seymour Hersh ofthe New York Times daily and the Iran-Contra scandal associatedNoriega with drug peddling activities. President Regan pressuredNoriega to resign from his position because he was involved in megacorruption(Herring, 2008). Nevertheless, he refused to step down. In addition,he changed his loyalty to the communist USSR. In 1989, Noriega wassupporting Carlos Duque during the Panamaniannational elections.He forcefully endorsed him despite the opposition leader, GuillermoEndara, defeating his preferred candidate by approximately three to1votes. The US requested him to give in to defeat by obeying the wishof the people, but instead he ambushed Endara, beat him, andforcefully endorsed himself as the president. The United States sentMarines to arrest Noriega, crash his military regime, and endorsedEndara as the democratically elected president. The invasion endedsoon afterwards after the US captured Noriega, terminated thePanamanian Defense Forces (PDF) (Nye, 2002).
Talentino,A. K. (2005). Militaryintervention after the Cold War: The evolution of theory andpractice.Athens: Ohio University Press.
Papp,D. S., Endicott, J. E., & Johnson, L. K. (2005). Americanforeign policy: History, politics, and policy.New York [u.a.: Pearson Longman.
Nye,J. S. (2002). Theparadox of American power: Why the world`s only superpower can`t goit alone.Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Herring,G.C. (2008). FromColony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations since 1776.Oxford University Press.