The brief attempts to observe a preschool child and reports on theobservations made. The set of development observations clarified inthe brief includes physical development, language development,cognitive development, emotional development, and social development. The brief will also include an assessment concerning the observeddevelopments.
ObservationsPhysicalobservationPeriod of Observation: 22 September 2014Startand finish time: 9.30-1.00 and 3.00- 4:30 (5 hours) Number ofchildren present: one (Dwight Johnson).Adults present duringobservation: two (one parent and one student) observation approvalattained from parent.
Description of Setting: The project took place in the coziness ofJohnson’s school waiting room, Eden Preschool, a light and airyhomeroom with a set of sofa and armchairs. The observation also tookplace in the playground.
Physical and Motor description of the child: Johnson is a male aged 3years and 7 months and attains tutelage at a preschool from Monday toFriday. He is a small well-built child and eats well. He is a livelyand joyful child, but shy and quite around unfamiliar people. Johnsoncrawled on the floor and pushed several trucks to the corner of theroom. He skipped and ran around the classroom and down the stairsfairly well, but most strides were small and unhurried. Johnson had asmall problem undoing his zipper completely, so he drew the coverover his head.
Cognitive observation: Johnson arrived in the room after I hadarrived and immediately he arrived, he went to his drawer, took offhis sweatshirt, and put it away. At one time, he tried to fit asledge into a fake slot and found it would not fit, at which time hewalked over to his teacher and asked for help. He had a good memoryin remembering people and stories related.
Language development: Johnson’s teacher came to the room and askedhim how his weekend was. Johnson told the teacher about all thepeople who had visited and some of the things they said. In theplayground, a boy passed Johnson a toy cellphone to which he replied‘thank you’. At one time, Johnson tried to climb over a hedge,but fell and said ‘ouch’.
Social-Emotional development: Johnson played at the Lego table withthree of his classmates where they made Lego spacecraft together andran around the room making noise. In another instance, Johnson playedwith Elsie, a girl from his class for a considerable period. He madea toy, gave it to Elsie, and invited her to a cardboard house. In themorning, Johnson gave his mother a hug and a peck after he wasdropped. He also nodded appropriately when his mother told him tobehave properly. Throughout the period, I saw Johnson angry once,when a classmate cheated in a game.
Based on hisage, Johnson is in the preoperational stage of life and behavesnormally. In addition, he does not have any developmental delay.Here, Johnson is less reliant on physical exploration and senses,which makes him an illogical thinker. For example, he does notunderstand that the hedge cannot fit in the slot, given they havedifferent sizes thus, incapacity to conserve features. According tothe observation, Johnson cannot stay for longer periods withoutmoving or reacting. As children grow, they become more established, acase clarified by Johnson’s motor capacity to undo his zipper evenif partly. Developmental notions suggest that smaller movements suchas grasping and reaching demonstrate the development of fine motor.Johnson knows how to unzip his zipper and with the transition toearly infantile, children become unpredictable, a case suggested byJohnson’s constant puckish behavior. With changing physicalcharacteristics, a child way of interaction and discerning changes ashe/she discovers a new world. In this regards, a preschooler will saya lot, ask many questions, play a lot, and respond to differentscenarios differently. Johnson is socially adept, moreself-conditional, and independent with accustomed insight of himself,peers, friends, and the knowledge that he/she is part of anescalating social circle of friends, peers, and relatives. However,the child is still in the process of development.
The observationreflects some inherent notion concerning the development of children.Johnson’s development suggests that he has a normal maturation ratei.e. his development is occurring in orderly sequences and stages. Hecompares perfectly well with other children in terms of size,activities completed, built, and social interaction. On the otherhand, he has a psychodynamic behavior, which is controlled byunconscious urges i.e. he develops anger egos when angered withsocial interactions influencing the personality development ofJohnson. Johnson has not developed much impulse control, a casesuggested by the way he handle anger or gratification. However, hehas developed a sense of humor and empathy i.e. understands thenotions of laughter and the fact that other people have feelings.
Johnson is inNaïve psychological stage, where he is beginning to note that wordsare codes for matters, a case demonstrated by Johnson’s curiosityto learn and contrast objects. However, Johnson’s behavior comparesto the nativist approach, which suggest that children acquirelanguage from innate capacities. Here, Johnson had a programmedcapacity to comprehend the construction of language especially fromfriends and peers. For example, after failing over a hedge Johnsonexclaimed ‘ouch’ an interjection he had heard from his teacher.In this regards, nature and nurture play a predominant role indeveloping language. In fact, Johnson has cultivated a tendency toperceive objects and develop an increased alignment torepresentational and symbolic events. As a brain develops, so does achild attain and polish language skills. Although Johnsondemonstrates an intense curiosity in erudition, he lacks selectiveattention and the effective mnemonic strategy to avoid distractions.
Here,microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem play a key role in the socialdevelopment of Johnson. The interactions and relationships between achild and more informed peer or adult play a key role in the way achild develops. For example, when the teacher scoffed at Johnson orappreciated his dealing, Johnson appeared to internalize emotions,ideas, feelings, and language. In addition, I found Johnson imitatingmost of the behaviors that the teacher aligned to, meaning thatbehaviorist approach plays a role in a child social development.
As asserted in psychological premises, Johnson has developed aninitiative versus guilt approach of independence as he is currentlyin preoperational stage. Here, Johnson has gained a sense ofinitiative by managing to make some decisions, plan events andactivities, and develop a sense of guilt as a developed peer squashhis ideas. Although John is yet to develop maturely, he has developeda sense of emotion and self-consciousness. In fact, Johnson hasarticulated a range of approaches for adjusting his emotional arousalto a more contented level. Here, Johnson follows up this arousal withpeer relations and engaging in social plays such as buildingspaceships, toys, and being playful. Observing a child allows one togain knowledge on the developmental process that takes place. Giventhe desired nurture and nature situations, a child will attain thecorrect level of development at the right time and shape an accuratedevelopment process. However, as suggested in some theoriesespecially by Piaget, egocentrism limits Johnson’s cognitive andemotional capacities such that he cannot distinguish his standpointand the points of others. In addition, he lacks serial ordering andclassification i.e. capacity to decode features and
As demonstratedin the observation, preschool children provide significant examplesof the way children play a predominant role in their own cognitive,motor, semantic, and emotional development, particularly in theirefforts to comprehend, clarify, organize, influence, construct, andforecast. In addition, they perceive patterns in events and objectsand then try to consolidate these configurations to explain theworld. However, they have cognitive constraints, which limits theircontrol of consideration and retention processes thus, they willconfuse posturing appearances with realism, and focus on a singlefacet of a familiarity at a time.