Psychological Questions


  1. What is a social need? Discuss how we involve and satisfy our need for achievement, affiliation and intimacy, and power.

Asocial need refers to an acquired psychological process that makes aperson to have strong desires to form relationships with others oncesafety and physiological needs have been fulfilled (Reeve 181). Thiskind of need always motivate and determine how an individual respondto a specific need-relevant incentive. A person acquires social needsthrough socialization, development, and experience. There are fourchief basic needs that include power, intimacy, achievement, andaffiliation. Need for achievement help individuals strive for clearand moderately hard goals that are accompanied with feedback providedon goal achievement. Individuals that have the need for achievementindulge in tasks that are moderately difficult to accomplish (Reeve183). Such individuals do not give up they are persistent until theyaccomplish any task that they set their mind on. They are motivatedin an intrinsic manner they indulge in various tasks in order togain pleasure and satisfaction and not for extrinsic rewards likemoney. Similarly, people who strongly strive for achievement alwaysprefer to have accurate and precise feedback about themselves. Theyreadily take responsibility for both their success and failure aswell as attribute their performance to themselves rather than tovarious circumstances that they encounter. Likewise, they like facingchallenges that they encounter in life as well as be alone or withlike-minded individuals. Need for affiliation help individuals desireto work, support, and interact with others with an aim of enhancingtheir growth and development. Such individual continuously desire tobe accepted and approved by others. They indulge in tasks that givethem the opportunity to be with others hence, they have a highlikelihood of conforming to others. Need for power help people striveto have influence and control over others. Individuals who desiresfor power continuously indulge in relationships that help themestablish as well as maintain influence over others (Reeve 211). Nowonder, such individuals seek leadership roles. These individualsoften give report, when experiencing a sense of control, which haspositive emotions. Similarly, need for intimacy make people formsecure and warm relationships. Individuals who strive for this socialneed share and disclose their personal information with people thatthey can trust (Reeve 196). Their relationships progress fromshallow, narrow interactions to deeper and broader interactions. Inaddition, they have high tendency of being warm and affectionatetowards others they report more pleasant emotions when around otherpeople. According to Reeve (197), women have a higher likelihood ofhaving a stronger need for intimacy than men do.

  1. Explain the differences between the psychoanalytic perspective and psychodynamic perspective? What was Freud`s perspective of the unconscious? What are the criticism of Freud`s perspective on motivation and what are your thoughts on this (agree, agree in part, disagree, or any other comments)?

Psychoanalyticperspective refers to a subset of psychodynamic theory that wascreated by Freud. Its main focus is conflict and motivations. It isbased on the assumption that every individual has both conscious andunconscious mind. An individual`s unconscious mind acts as storagefor painful feelings and memories that are hard to addressconsciously (Bernstein 55). Psychodynamic perspective on the otherhand refers to a wide therapeutic orientation that is composed of egopsychology, self psychology, psychoanalysis, and object relationsamong others. This perspective chiefly aims at dealing with aspecific problem, like personality trait and phobia, which impact apatient’s life in a negative manner.

Freudargued that the unconscious mind acts as a store for memories, urges,thoughts, and feelings that are outside people’s consciousawareness. Bernstein (67) acknowledges that most of the unconscious’content is unpleasant and it incorporates conflict, pain, or anxiety.This part of people’s mind has a high influence on theirexperiences and behavior despite the fact that they are unaware ofsuch underlying influences.

Freudpresented ‘life and Death Instincts’ theory to explain hisperspective on motivation. Life instincts deal with reproduction,pleasure, and basic survival. These instincts give rise to varioushuman behaviors that include cooperation and love. Death instincts,on the other hand, play a key role in reenacting traumaticexperiences that an individual may have encountered in his or herpast life. Several criticisms have been raised against this theory.For instance, Bernstein (107) findings show that the theory reliesheavily on outdated and vague scientific knowledge. In addition,Bernstein (87) argues that this theory is rarely useful when appliedto particular situations and individuals. Again, many therapist,educators, researchers get along well without make any use of thistheory. Other argue that ego does not necessarily denies instinctssimply because of the clash with reality or due to excessive increaseof instincts to unmanageable level, but because instincts feelings ofanxiety that are intolerable

Ibelieve there is still some vitality in Freud’s motivation theorydespite several critics that have been put across. This is becausethere is still evidence of confused connections betweendestructiveness and sexuality in the society. For instance, somepeople seem to operate against the principle of self-preservation ofself or others. Therefore, it is of immense significance that modernpsychologists understand the role of individuals in displayingcertain behaviors even though certain tendencies might be programmedin a biological manner.


Bernstein,Daniel. Essentialsof psychology.Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2011. Print.

Reeve,Johnmarshall. UnderstandingMotivation and Emotion.(5 ed). New York: John Wiley &amp Sons, Inc., 2009.Web.