Question Answers



TheOSI model was developed to help explain how data are packaged andmoved through the Internet to arrive as needed. Many of the conceptsthat are used for this purpose are created by standardsorganizations. What are some of these organizations? Why isstandardization necessary? How does the OSI model ensure that thisstandardization is being used?

Thereare three principle international organizations creating standardsand protocols for communication. They include International StandardsOrganization otherwise known as ISO, International TelecommunicationUnion-Telecommunication Sector (ITU-T) which produces standards forlinking various types of national and international networks, theAmerican Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEEE) which developsstandards for use by manufacturers of computers and the AmericanNational Standards Institute (ANSI).

TheOSI model has served as the most fundamental elements of computernetworking. The model is based on a guideline set by ISO. The reasonwhy standardization is important is to provide a set of designstandards for equipment makers so that they can connect with eachother. Standardization ensures that manufacturers adhere to the givenstandard that ensure system compatibility and avoid communicationbreakdown. This also saves consumers or electronics from the lossincurred in changing communication networks. To achievestandardization, the OSI system stipulates a hierarchicalarchitecture that reasonably separates the functions required toenhance system to system communication.

Howhave standards allowed the Internet to grow into a worldwide tool?

Thecommon standards of HTTP, URIs and HTML have enabled the growth ofthe internet since it allows the development of companies anduniversities all over the world to be applied to the exploitation andgrowth of the web.

Whatstandards or organizations are used in your workplace or in your workat home? Are there standards in your everyday life that keeps societyin order?

Thereis an ethical conduct policy applied in my organization used togovern the way operations are handled, and the way employees carrythemselves towards others and customers.


Networkprotocols are needed to provide the rules for how data aretransferred over the network.One of the most common protocols isTCP/IP, also known as the universal protocol. Why is it given thisname and how is it important in ensuring that all authorizedindividuals can send and receive data over the network?

IPis the basic communication protocol within internet protocol suitefor transferring datagrams across network boundaries. It has arouting function which ensures authorized internet users areinterconnected in a safe way.

Arethere circumstances in which other protocols are used in health care?What are they, and why are they used instead of TCP/IP?

Inthe health care sector, some other form of internet protocol may beused such as the global internet protocol for ubiquitous healthcaremonitoring applications. They are used due to the delicate nature ofoperations in healthcare.

Arethere ways in which the public communications called the Internet canbe used for private traffic? Do you work from home using VPN orVirtual Private Networking?

Aninstance in the open subnet can receive inbound traffic straight fromthe internet, whereas the incidences in the private subnet cannot.The cases in public subnet can send outgoing traffic straight to theinternet while the private subnet cannot. However, the instances inthe private network can access the internet using a NAT (networkaddress translation) instance that initiate into the public subnet.

Doyou use the Internet for private transactions? How are thesetransactions secured? How much do you depend on the Internet forfinances?

Iuse the internet for various private transactions. The transactionscarried in the internet are secured through secure socket layer(SSL). This is a typical security technology for establishing anencrypted connection between a server and a client. It allowssensitive information like social security numbers, credit cardnumbers and login details to be transferred securely. I depend on theinternet for finances in almost every aspect. I transact throughPaypal in almost all the financial transactions I carry out.


Healthcare organizations and other businesses rely heavily on theirnetworks being operational 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Thisincludes the electrical system for critical needs. How might healthcare organizations ensure this level of reliability? &nbsp

Lossof electricity can cause major breakdown in operations. Health careorganizations in particular need a plan to deal with such instancesin critical need. To achieve uninterrupted power supply, health careorganizations must have an integrated power system with standbygenerators. In addition, there is need to have all the systems tohave UPS (uninterrupted power supply) to avoid any breakdown.

Hasloss of electrical power or loss of Internet access affected youpersonally or at work? How did you deal with it?

Ihave been affected on various occasions by loss of electric powerboth at home and at workplace. In one instance at home, I was workingon some important documents that had to be submitted to thesupervisor within a short time. I was late with submission which ledto major loss. To cope with this situation, I installed aninterrupted power supply system (UPS) which allows me to save andtransfer work across networks wherever there is power loss in myneighborhood, so that I can continue working on another computer.

Whathave been some noticeable public power outages and what did theyaffect? How about storms? What can be done or what did you do?

OnDecember 2013, a major power outage hit Michigan resulting from amajor ice storm. It affected more than half a million people. Itaffected business and all operations in mid-Michigan. Restoration wasexpected to be accomplished through 29thDecember the same year. During such times, one can use a generator tosupply power.