Running head: RACE/ETHNICITY 1


August21, 2014.

Incarceration in America

Researchstudies indicate that the rates of incarceration are subjective andborders overt discrimination in America. Recent study trends in crimeindicate that there has been a decline in racial and ethnic criminaldiscrimination but disparities are still prevalent in justice and lawenforcement(Mauer &amp King, 2007).Ethnic and racial violence still persists in cases where the blacksare victimized by whites during law enforcement, arrests, prosecutionand in the prisons (Champion,Hartley &amp Rabe, 2012).In a recent research conducted by Mauer and King (2007) on Statesrates of incarceration by ethnicity and race, data findings from mostStates in America indicated that the black minority had high rates ofincarceration compared to other races. According to this research,black Americans had a 5.6 times high rate of incarceration than thewhite, the Hispanics and other minorities (Mauer&amp King, 2007).

Inaddition, the incarceration rate ratio (blacks versus whites) wasalso disproportionately high in various States (Mauer&amp King, 2007).The findings co-relate many social and criminal studies conductedpreviously on the difference in incarceration rates by race andethnicity. The prevalence rate of incarceration of black men ishigher than that of women. Similarly, black women were more prone toincarceration than white women (Mauer&amp King, 2007).Analyzing this study and many others indicate that the rate of unevenjustice mostly among the blacks is still prevalent (Champion,Hartley &amp Rabe, 2012).

Manysocial scientists are of view that, while racial discrimination rateshave reduced as recorded, most victims fail to report due to fear offurther discrimination (Champion,Hartley &amp Rabe, 2012).This trend is expected to persist since the American society throughits lifestyle, routine activities and other situations continuouslyengage in race victimization on particular individuals. The problemfurther compounded by the fact that most blacks and other minoritiesin the United States are racially segregated, most are poor andunemployed. These factors predispose them to criminal activities as aresult of frustrations and discrimination by the general whitesociety(Champion, Hartley &amp Rabe, 2012).


Champion,D. J., Hartley, R. D., &amp Rabe, G. A. (2012). Criminal courts:Structure, process, and issues (3rd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:Pearson Education, Inc.

MauerM. &amp King R. S. (2007). Uneven Justice: State Rates ofIncarceration by Race and Ethnicity. TheSentencing Project.Retrieved on August 21, 2014, from