Review questions



1.Can an individual make a statement true by believing it to be true?Why or why not?

No.Belief alone cannot change the property or facts contained instatement. It can only be true or false if either can be verified ina given situation.

2.Can a society make a statement true simply by believing it to betrue? Why or why not?

No.A statement is true in a certain condition and false in a certaincondition. This condition is what makes it true or false but not thebeliefs.

3.Can a statement be true in one conceptual scheme and false inanother? Why or why not?

Yes.This is because something might be the same but be interpreteddifferently in another conceptual scheme e.g. an act being viewedpositively in one culture and negatively in another.

4.Consider the statement: No universal generalizations are true. Canthis statement be true? Why or why not?

No.From a relativist viewpoint, no unrestricted universalgeneralizations are true, but the statement itself is an unrestrictedgeneralization hence it is not true.

5.Is it reasonable to believe that everything (including the people wemeet) is a creation of our own minds? Why or why not?

Yes.What the mind perceives in a given scheme concept is translated intothe mind as just a perception. The mind is what makes it what it is.


  1. What is the claim being made in this passage?

The claim made is that whenhumans or living things learn a habit, other unrelated humans andliving things can learn the habit easily automatically.

2. Are any reasons offered tosupport the claim?

Morphic fields are responsiblesuch learning. New habits alter morphic fields which in turn affectthe behavior of other creatures in the same filed.

  1. Are morphic fields physically possible? Why or why not?

No. If they were, there would beno major differences amongst objects in the same field as they existin reality.

  1. Would the existence of morphic fields lend support to the notion 
that reality is socially constructed? Why or why not?

No. The morphic field notionwould imply that one society’s perception of would spread to otherswith time resulting into a common reality.

  1. What kind of evidence would convince you that morphic fields exist?

If third world countries woulddevelop faster today as a result of the first world’s development,but it is not the case.

PARTII B. Critique

The notion presented in thepassage is unreasonable to me. There is no scientific backing for theclaims made in the passage which borders on magic and telepathicbeliefs. The hundredth-monkeyidea, on which the morphic field concept is based, has beendiscredited widely for lack of scientific basis. It therefore followsthat the derivative is also faulty on scientific grounds. There areno modern studies that have indicated that people or things magicallylearn to do things is apparently easier manner just because thepopulation of those things that can do it in another world hasincreased. Such a claim would mean that mountain lions can learn tosurvive in the savannah climate easily just because there is a hugepopulation of savannah lions in the African plains. Such an argumentis lacks scientific credibility. What would make the idea credible isif the initial studies starting from the hundred monkey idea to themorphic-field theory could be tested and replicated elsewhere aroundthe world. As it is, the concept appeals best to the overlyimaginative mind. For theories to gain scientific recognition theymust undergo a battery of tests follow proper scientific researchprocesses such as a proper methodology and proper documentation ofresults. The idea of mice learning to navigate a maze more easily asa result of increase in the population of other mice that cannavigate the maze in another world is not reasonable.

PartIII. – By the Lake of Sleeping Children.

The author uses the first chapters to provide a vivid description ofTijuana. He draws a grim picture of poverty and his childhood life inTijuana in contrast to the opulent lifestyle of California. He delvesinto a popular misconception that poverty and disease are akin toMexicans while opulence is akin to Americans. He introducescharacters who live in the dump and highlights their poverty.

The second chapter provides more details about life in the dump. Thechapter captures excerpts of illiteracy amidst poverty among thepeople of Tijuana. It also captures the different perceptions of lifepeople have largely influence by education and income levels. Thechapter closes with a description of lake of death.


Bechtel,W. (2013). Philosophyof Mind: An Overview for Cognitive Science.New

York:Psychology Press.

Lacewing,M. (2013). Philosophyfor A2: Unit 3: Key Themes in Philosophy.New


Shelton,C. (2012). QuantumLeaps. New York:Routledge.

TheScientific Method. Retrieved online from

Urrea,L. (2010). By the Lake of Sleeping Children. New York: KnopfDoubleday