SUPREME COURT CASES.

  1. In the case of United states v. United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan (1972), the Supreme Court held that all evidence discovered as a result of a search and seizure conducted in violation of the 4th Amendment shall be inadmissible in State court proceedings.

  1. In the case of Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), the Supreme Court held that the 6th Amendment must be interpreted to require states to provide counsel for criminal defendants in both capital and noncapital cases.

  1. In the case of Terry v. Ohio (1968), the Supreme Court held that officers may not use deadly force unless it is necessary to prevent the escape of a fleeing suspect and the officer has probable cause to believe that the suspect poses a significant threat of death or serious physical injury to the officer or others.

  1. In the case of Graham v. Florida (2010), the Supreme Court held that the proceedings for juveniles had to comply with the requirements of the 14th Amendment including adequate notice of charges, notification of both the parents and the child of the juvenile`s right to counsel, opportunity for confrontation and cross- examination at the hearings, and adequate safeguards against self- incrimination.

  1. In the case of Mapp v. Ohio (1961), the Supreme Court held that an officer may perform a search for weapons without a warrant, even without probable cause, when the officer reasonably believes that the person may be armed and dangerous.

  1. In the case of Roper v. Simmons (2005), the Supreme Court held that the 8th and 14th Amendments forbid imposition of the death penalty on offenders who were under the age of 18 when their crimes were committed.

  1. In the case of Miranda v. Arizona (1966), the Supreme Court held the 5th Amendment right against self-incrimination is fundamental to our system of justice. In order to reconcile the necessary practice of custodial interrogations, police must ensure that defendants are aware of their rights before they are interrogated in custody.

  1. In the case of Miller v. Alabana (2012), the Supreme Court held that the 8th Amendment prohibits a sentencing scheme that requires life in prison without the possibility of parole for juvenile homicide offenders.

  1. In the case of Gregg v. Georgia (1976) the Supreme Court held that a punishment of death did not violate the 8th and 14th Amendments under all circumstances overturning the case of Furman v. Georgia.

  1. In the case of Katz v. United States (1967), the Supreme Court held that the protection of the 4th Amendment, against unreasonable searches and seizures, follows the person and not the place. In other words, regardless of the location, a conversation is protected if it is made with a reasonable expectation of privacy.