Assessment of the levels of organ chlorine pesticide residues in Human milk  2
Generallyorganochlorine are compounds that are comprised of chlorine, carbonand hydrogen elements. The bond that exists between carbon andchlorine is so strong and thus cannot disintegrate with ease. Thesecompounds are normally insoluble in water but tend to depict atendency of being attracted to fats (Vidal & Frenich2005).Alternatively organochlorine can be defined as organiccompounds that comprise of at least a single chlorine atom that isbonded covalently. These compounds exist in different structureshence leading to different chemical characteristics being depicted byeach depending on its structure.
Organochlorinenormally tend to resist metabolism in animals as they are usuallystored in the fatty tissues of the animals that intake them.Some ofthe common organochlorine compounds that exist include the followingdichlordiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), dicofol, cyclodienes,chlordane, trans-monachlor, aldrin and dielarin (Vidal & Frenich2005). Due to their fat-soluble nature, organochlorine compoundsnormally accumulate in the respective animals and this is usuallypassed across the food chain and thus the residue they leave behindbecome an environmental hazard with toxic effects being observed inboth animals and human beings. Once these compounds accumulate in thebody tissues of these animals they pose serious health risks which attimes may turn to be fatal (Harrad 2009).
Theexposure of human beings to organochlorine compounds is largelyattributed to the food chain as the compounds are ingested by onemember of the food chain and are passed across to other respectivemembers. This mainly occurs by consumption contaminated milk andother dairy related products. Depending of the type of foods thathuman beings ingest and the level of contamination that has occurredto them, the level of organochlorine compounds tend to vary from oneperson to the next and also the geographical setting in which peoplelive is another factor that determines or influences the level of thecompound in human milk (Harrad 2009).Pesticides are one of thecompounds that are responsible for emission of environmentalcontaminants such as organochlorine and organohalogens whichcontaminate breast milk and at some incidence cause breast cancer.Given the fact that these women spend most of the time in theagricultural fields there are high chances of exposure to pesticideand other compounds i.e. furans and dioxins which are responsible forcontamination of breast milk. This is likely to be passed on to offsprings who feed on breast milk. Human milk is produced in themammary glands located in female breasts. It serves as the primarysource of nutrition for new born babies. Human milk from a maturefemale is mainly composed of 4% fat, 0.8% protein, 0.75% carbohydrateand 0.1% mineral nutrients (Carpenter 2003). Milk composition tendsto be consistent in all females irrespective of age, race or parity.Human milk does not provide immunity to newborns rather it providesactive antibodies that aid in shielding the newborn against pathogensas its body develops its own immune system (Vidal & Frenich2005).
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