Termsdefinition and description
Prestigerefers to the reverence accorded to a given dialect or language inrelation to a dialect or language from another speech community. Thelanguage or dialect associated with people from the upper class isdeemed more superior than the dialects/languages associated withlower class people. Since the upper-class persons’ language/dialectis considered superior, many people classify it as the standardlanguage. Language prestige is common in situations where people fromsocially stratified and diverse backgrounds come into contact.
Stigmarefers to absolute disapproval and dissatisfaction to a language ordialect. The disapproval may be emanating from personal or communityprejudice instigated by cultural difference. Language stigma may alsoarise from language association from criminality, ethnicity, genderidentity, ideology, or ethnicity.
Covertprestige refers to special preference by a group of people to usenon-standard language in selected places. For instance, peopleworking in the traditional workplaces often prefer using non-standardlanguage to the standard language. The individuals making the groupoften use the non-standard language to portray class and groupsolidarity, as well as neighborhood pride.
Anexample of covert prestige includes use of Arabic in Islamicreligion. Despite the fact that the Koran has been translated toseveral international languages, the Arabic version of the originalverses is featured. The preachers read the Arabic version and thenread the translated language. The aim of including the originallanguage version is to portray the strength, value, and strongassociation of the reverence of Arabic in Islam.
Anotherexample of a covert prestige includes use of modern farmingtechnology in farms. In the recent past, advanced farming technology,have improved food production using greenhouses, inorganicfertilizers, pest control chemicals, and genetically modified foods(GMOs). However, some farmers prefer to use organic food productionssuch as biological pest control, using animal manure instead offertilizers and growing foods in the natural environment instead ofgreenhouses. The purpose for growing natural foods is that they aremore valuable, nutritious, and superior to the GMOs.