THE PHILOSOPHICAL VIEWS DEVELOPED BY EPICURUS 8
Thephilosophical views developed by Epicurus
TheEpicurus’s principle doctrines encompass human nature, epistemologyand psychoanalysis. The legend held the view that a blessed humanbeing is peaceful so long as he does not infringe on other people’srights. Additionally, a human being enjoys sobriety and recognitionbecause the behavior naturally attracts people. The philosopher alsobelieved that death is inconsequential given that the occurrence ofdeath is equivalent to matter being dissolved back to its elements(O`Keefe,2010).The elements have no sensation. Additionally, the legend holds theview that maximum pleasure is obtained when all pain has beeneliminated. According to Epicurus, there is no pain in body, in mindand spirit when a person is in this state. The other view advocatedby Epicurus is that pain is does not last for long. Moreover,excessive pain lasts for a short time. Chronic diseases allow ahuman being some pleasure because of exemption from the busyactivities in life. Consequently, there is an extra pleasure overpain in the circumstance. The legend also holds the view that it isinevitable for a human being to life suffering-free life.Additionally, it is impossible to be perfectly wise and certain ofthe future.
Thestructure and composition of the Kosmosl
Thestructure of Kosmol entails the moral precepts and modalities oftheir applications. The concept involves the evaluation ofperceptions of people on the moral values and the need fortransformation of the views of people regarding ethic and morality.The concept involves empathy and sacrifice in a body to attain theethical standards required. Kosmol enables a person to have a broadview of issues. The concept is related to utilitarianism. Moreover,natural science helps people to avoid death and pain wheneverpossible. Therefore, the study of natural science enhances theenjoyment of pleasure for human kind. Other people are irrelevant solong as a person can be alerted of nature’s unfolding. Theneighbors can only enable a person to acquire wealth rather thanaccording everlasting sobriety. According to Lillegard(2013), nature requires a surmountable wealth but the ideal wealth isinfinite. The aspect of chance challenges the power of reason for awise man because a wise man’s best weapon is reason. Justice freesa man from discord and misery while injustice leads a man todisturbance and misfortune. The legend also advocates that bodilypleasure does not vary so long as the urge for a want is satisfied.Maximum mental pleasure is attained upon reflection on the relativeemotions of concern.
Thehuman knowledge of the Kosmos, including knowledge ofobservednatural events
Thehuman knowledge on the Kosmos including observed natural events isimpossible because the events are usually subjected to scientificresearch. After research is carried out on the events and the Kosmos,the findings are put in the public domain. However, the findings donot necessarily imply the reality of nature. The research carried outis never substantive because of lack of prior human knowledge torelate the ideas obtained. The philosopher also established thatpleasure is awesome but the things, which produce pleasure, causeproblems. According to Epicurus, pleasure does not accumulate overour bodies because there are different levels and types of pleasure(Gordon,2013).In this regard, pleasure is based on the manner in which anindividual perceives and understands the variables causing it. Thelegend also adds that if pleasure freed man from the fear of the mindwith regard to death and pain, the man could exist without any worryof uncertainty. Epicurus also asserts that natural science isrelevant to the extent of the presence of atmospheric phenomenon.Thenature of a human being
Thenature of a human being is subject to sensations and feelings. Thelatter create the basis of human beliefs, which form the thinkingstructure of people. Therefore, the mind cannot be ignored in theaspect of human nature. According to O`Keefe(2010), the mind creates various forms of sensations when a humanbeing is exposed to diverse conditions of the environment. The bodyoffers the mind the platform to create sensations for the body. Inthis case, the body and mind are inseparable elements. Therefore, thehuman beings cannot be compared to space, which exists on its ownalthough natural bodies move in it.Howa human being ought to live his life
Accordingto Epicurus, a human being ought to live wisely. A human being mustapply prudence in all his undertakings in order to minimize andpossibly eliminate life risks. Man’s belief that pain never lastsand pleasure lasts, survive the adverse conditions in life. Theperception makes humans stay free of the fear of death. Necessity ismother to invention and drives the behavior of people (Lillegard,2013).In this regard, necessity defies responsibility. Chance in life isalso never constant. According to Epicurus the pleasure accorded byunlimited time equals that of limited time. The legend also assertsthat a human being perceive pleasure as unlimited. The procurement ofsuch pleasure requires an unlimited time. However, the mindconsciously determines the end of pleasure. In this regard, the minddoes not deny the body pleasure when death is imminent. The legendalso claims that the understanding of the limits of life enables oneto eliminate the pain of wants. He philosopher also adds that it isimperative of human being to focus on the ultimate end before passinga resolution on an issue. Consequently, uncertainty and disorder sreduces.
TheEpicurus letter to Menoeceus
Epicurus’letter to Menoeceuscontained exhortations and inspiration. Epicurus gives a reasonableview on the acquisition of wisdom and the ignorance of wisdom. Forinstance Epicurus says, “…Letno one be slow to seek wisdom when he is young nor weary in thesearch of it when he has grown old. For no age is too early or toolate for the health of the soul. And to say that the season forstudying philosophy has not yet come, or that it is past and gone, islike saying that the season for happiness is not yet or that it isnow no more…”(Lillegard, 2013, 41).The legend implores Menoeceusto be diligent in search of wisdom. The excerpt means that wisdom isa medicine to the soul given that it enables an individual actwisely. His message is relevant to people of all ages. Therefore,there is need to seek knowledge in order to avoid pain, which hurtsthe soul. This implies that the search of knowledge and wisdom is theobligation of both the old and the young in age. The possession ofwisdom qualifies a young person to be considered an old person.Wisdom brings joy to a person and lack of it brings distress.Therefore, a young person can lead a good life because he would notbe troubled of the future. Wisdom assures of success in anyundertaking so long as a person acts diligently. For instance,believing in God assures the faithful that there is eternal life.Therefore, anything, which does not comply with the premise, isassumed to be null and void of the goodness and purpose of God inpeople’s lives. In this regard, Epicurus says, “…believethat God is a living being immortal and blessed, according to thenotion of a god indicated by the common sense of mankind and sobelieving, you shall not affirm of him anything that is foreign tohis immortality or that is repugnant to his blessedness. Believeabout him whatever may uphold both his blessedness and hisimmortality. For there are gods, and the knowledge of them ismanifest but they are not such as the multitude believe, seeing thatmen do not steadfastly maintain the notions they form respectingthem…”(Gordon, 2013, 43).The philosopher indicates that many people uphold God’s oraclesbecause they manifest God’s will in their lives on a daily basis.Deviation from the teachings leads to suffering and misery.
Theletter of Epicurus to Herodotus
Theletter contains the main doctrines on nature with regard to Epicurus’view. Epicurus held a scientific approach to the forces of naturewhile other scholars held a magical view of the forces of nature. Thelegend elaborates the structure of the mind and its operation and itsrelation to the scientific atomic study. Epicurus also highlights thesignificance of metaphysics on the promotion of human happiness andchallenges the superstitious view of other scholars. The philosopheradvocates for the view that it is imperative for people to obey theirsensations in order to obtain truth from the occurrences of nature.However, it is imperative to test the premise, which needsconfirmation. Epicurus says, “…nothingcomes into being out of what is non-existent For in that caseanything would have arisen out of anything, standing as it would inno need of its proper germs. And if that which disappears had beendestroyed and become non-existent, everything would have perished,that into which the things were dissolved being non-existent…”(Lillegard,2013, 67).Inthis case, Epicurus advices Herodotusto critique all information before accepting the premises held byother philosophers. The critical approach provides an opportunity fordiscovering the deception and truth presented in scientific findings.Additionally, Epicurus asserts that the totality of matter neverchanges. Matter is continuously being transformed from one state toanother but there is nothing, which changes. All things in existencecan only be subjected to some transformation but the ultimate totalof matter remains the same. Epicurus states, “…thesum total of things was always such as it is now, and such it willever remain. For there is nothing into which it can change. Foroutside the sum of things there is nothing which could enter into itand bring about the change…” (O`Keefe,2010, 37).The implication of the human life condition is that nobody leads apleasant life devoid of problems. However, just and wise a person canbe, he cannot live without suffering. Additionally, fame and highsocial status never guarantees ultimate security against sufferingand enemies. Life is general rather than absolute. Therefore, manonly attains natural good when he has died. A dead man is indifferentgiven that he does not feel suffering nor enjoy life.
Lillegard,N. (2013). OnEpicurus.Australia: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning.
Gordon,P. (2013). Epicurusin Lycia: The second-century world of Diogenes of Oenoanda.Ann
Arbor:Univ. of Michigan Press.
O`Keefe,T. (2010). Epicuruson freedom.Cambridge : Cambridge Univ. Press.