The Rise of Alcoholism in Law Enforcement

TheRise of Alcoholism in Law Enforcement

DieshaHill

SaintLeo University

TheRise of Alcoholism in Law Enforcement

  1. The Problem

Theproblem of alcoholism among law enforcement officers has been on anupward trend and a subject of public attention in recent years(Violantiet al., 2011).Law enforcement officers are charged with one of the most importantfunctions in society that is protection of its citizens, thus it iscritical for them to be alert and sober in the course of theirduties. The problem of alcoholism is further fuelled by the fact thatalcohol use and dependency go undetected until an officer isincapable of operating effectively (Violantiet al., 2011).Due to the unity culture in law enforcement, officers are unlikely toreport another officer during the onset of alcoholism until theproblem escalates. Essentially, most law enforcement officers turn toalcohol due to the nature of police work that exposes them to trauma,death, violence and suicide on a regular basis which may in turn takea toll on even the most resilient officer over time. The policeculture also perpetuates social and binge drinking among lawenforcement officers (Eiserer, 2012). Eiserer (2012) asserts thatrecruits are introduced to drinking while still in the academy. TheLaw Enforcement work environment lacks systems and programs forchanneling the negative emotions that officers experience in thecourse of their duties, which in turn causes them to barricade theiremotions. In essence, law enforcement officers are expected to detachtheir personal emotions and feelings, which go against human natureand instinct. Over time, Law Enforcement Officers become detached,bitter and depressed subsequently turning to alcohol use and abuse inorder to cope. Because of the law enforcement work individuals inthis occupation tend to experience higher rates of interpersonalproblem in both work and personal lives making them lonely andbitter, which further fuels the problem of alcohol use consequently,causing dependency (Violantiet al., 2011 Suresh,Anantharaman, Angusamy &amp Ganesan, 2013).

  1. Factors Bearing on the Problem

Accordingto Marks (2001), the statistics of alcoholism among law enforcementofficers are unclear, largely due to lack of studies on the issue. However, growing interest in alcoholism in law enforcement hasrevealed some worrying facts that include:

  • In the United States a quarter of the total number of law enforcement officers are affected by the problem of alcoholism. According to Marks (2001), the alcoholism rate in police force is 25 per cent compared to only 7.5 per cent in the general population.

  • The percentage of law enforcement officers clinically treated for addition to alcoholism is twice as high in comparison to the general population in the community.

  • Police work currently surpasses air traffic control, which has previously been ranked as the most stressful occupation in the United States of America. According to Suresh et al. (2013), police work is ranked as the most stressful occupation in modern day times.

  • Police officers have higher rates of driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol in comparison to the general population (The Police Executive Research Forum, 2012).

  • Generally, police officers experience higher rates of interpersonal problems in comparison to the general population and consequently turn to alcohol and other substances to numb their pain.

  • Eiserer (2012) in a research asserts that 20 per cent of law enforcement officers are problem drinkers.

  • Law enforcement officers are more susceptible to alcoholism because of the culture of drinking that is formally inducted which recruits are still in the academy (The Police Executive Research Forum, 2012). In fact, Eiserer (2012) agrees to this assertion by asserting that 20% of law enforcers are problem drinkers.

  1. Discussion

Theproblem of alcoholism among law enforcement officers is as old aspolicing. In a debate about alcoholism in 2012 the Milwaukee Chief,Ed Flynn stated that “foras long as there have been police officers, alcohol has been aproblem in policing”(The Police Executive Research Forum, 2012). Law enforcement officersuse alcohol for diverse reasons including reducing stress andsocializing with each other. In Wisconsin, for instance, alcohol useis generally accepted behavior due to the high stress nature of thejob (Sureshet al., 2013).In essence, alcohol use is a deeply engrained culture among lawenforcement officers in Wisconsin because it is inducted right afterrecruitment (Violantiet al., 2011).Law enforcers in this area have for a long time taken to alcohol toinduct new recruits, celebrate, and as a way of recreation, but inmost times they have ended up drinking more than their bodies canmanage. The excessive consumption of alcohol has profound impact onsocial, financial, personal, and professional lives of an individual.In law enforcement, alcoholism not only has impact on the officersinvolved but also the organization and society as well. High levelsof alcohol lead to impairment of an officers ability to perform theirduty effectively and increases the risk of suffering an injurysignificantly.

Alcoholismin impairs a law enforcement officer competence significantly andgiven the nature of their job they likely to place their lives, thoseof their partners and the public at risk. In the article, Theydrink when they’re blue: Stress, peer pressure contribute topolice’s alcohol culture,one officer states that he drank excessively at a birthday party andlater on his way home collided with another car instantly killing thedriver (Eiserer, 2012). Additionally, a law enforcement officer fromSouth Dallas (Texas) got heavily intoxicated after work and althoughshe got a ride home with a colleague, she accidentally discharged hergun firing shots into the floorboard. In essence, the risk emanatingfrom alcoholism among law enforcement officers are massive (Willman,2012).

Thereis a correlation between alcohol use and stress among law enforcementofficers. According to Eiserer (2012), law enforcement officersexpose themselves to dangerous and life threatening situations on aregular basis. Additionally, law enforcement officers have to complywith the demands by their superior even in stances when they do notagree, due to the authoritative leadership style used by lawenforcement administrators and the highly bureaucratic nature of elaw enforcement organizations. In a survey carried out to identifythe reasons alcoholism is a key problem among law enforcementofficers found that ‘thenumber one stressor was the administration of the police department’(The Police Executive Research Forum, 2012). The two facets of policeorganizations tend to cause conflict within law enforcement officers.The field and office structures of the organization tend to differgreatly and officers may find it difficult to work professionally inone field.

Alaw enforcement department is not only a security entity, but also aprofession structure. In this sense, law enforcement officer have toact as professionals called upon to serve and protect the societywhile still abiding by the complex and rigid para-services structureof police organizations that requires strict adherence to thestipulated regulations, policies and procedures (Violantiet al., 2011 Willman,2012).In most instances, law enforcement officers are torn betweenfollowing rules and, using their instinct to help vulnerable citizensthat need their help, which consequently causes stress. Lawenforcement officers also have to deal with unruly and in someinstances violent offenders. Law enforcement officers are expected toperform their duties without allowing the negative feeling theyencounter including pain, frustration and stress to affect them dueto the chauvinist nature of police work. Fundamentally, lawenforcement officers have to deal with both internal and externalstressors, which make them highly vulnerable, and consequently theyturn to alcohol as a means of coping.

Lawenforcement officers encounter a myriad of internal stressorsincluding rigid policies and procedures, poor supervision, lack ofsystems to facilitate employee growth, which makes it extremelydifficult to be promoted, low motivation due to lack of effectivereward systems, reliance on paper work, which is cumbersome, and lackof resources to facilitate effective performance of tasks. Lawenforcement officers also have to deal with external stressorsemanating from jurisdictional conflict between the various lawenforcement agencies, inefficiencies in the criminal justice system,political interference in police decision making, negative attitudetowards law enforcement and negative publicity by the media due tobias during reporting. Law enforcement work also contributessignificantly to stress experienced by law enforcement officers(Willman, 2012). Likewise, Lindsay (2008) asserts that lawenforcement officers are exposed to post traumatic stress due toexposure to trauma and violence. Lack of balance arising from longuneventful periods followed by high activity periods tends to causeburst stress among law enforcement officers. The high stress natureof law enforcement work causes officers to experience burnout andexperience change in the psychological makeup, which may haveprofound negative effect on their mental as well as physical health.For instance, law enforcement officers have to work for long hoursand irregular shifts which tend to cause physical and mental burnout.In order to relax and distress a significantly high number of lawenforcement officers turn to alcohol use, which consequently may leadto dependency and alcoholism. Alcoholism contributes significantly tomisconduct by law enforcement officers (Willman, 2012). Accordingto the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) (2012), there are aconsiderably high number of law enforcement officers who have beenarrested due to drinking under the influence of alcohol.Additionally, the high divorce rates among law enforcement officersare also influenced greatly by alcoholism. Alcoholism also causes lawenforcement officers to engage in alcohol related misconduct when offduty. Additionally, law enforcement officers face great tension fromthe possibility that they may kill an innocent person such as childin the course of their duty. When such a situation occurs a lawenforcement officers will tend to feel remorseful and empty inside inaddition to the repercussions from their superiors due to such anaction (Sureshet al., 2013).Lawenforcement officers work in pairs and they have a duty to care andprotect their partners while in the field. In the event that a lawenforcement officers partner is killed or, harmed his/ her partnertend to feel personally responsible which in turn causes them to bestressed.

ThePolice Executive Research Forum (2012) argues that law enforcementofficers consuming alcohol is a significant part of the policeculture. Law enforcement officers drink a lot and they tend to drinktogether because it exemplifies the macho culture associated withbeing a police officer (Eiserer, 2012). Additionally, in lawenforcement culture-drinking alcohol is not only a result of thestressful nature of their job but also a result of peer pressure fromother officers. New recruits also referred to as rookies get exposedto alcohol use right from the onset of their careers because they areindoctrinated into the police force and ‘brotherhoodin blue’by being introduced to the policing culture of alcohol consumption(Eiserer, 2012). Officersthink that they can alcohol as an inducement of reducing stress, insome instances, when law enforcement officers go out to drink theytend to engage in unruly behavior through staging competitions on whocan drink more. Law enforcement officers also tend to have alcohol inthe glove compartments of their cars so that they can indulgethemselves whenever they feel like (Suresh et al., 2013). Additionally,some law enforcement officers will drink alcohol so that they canfeel as part of the brotherhood in essence ‘justto fit in with their colleagues’(Eiserer, 2012). Lack of moderation when drinking by law enforcementofficers is further exacerbated by the presence of bars in policedepartments, which gives them the freedom to be as unruly as theywish without scrutiny from the public eye (Patterson,Chung &amp Swan, 2011).Eiserer(2012), further, argues that alcohol provides police officers with arelatively inexpensive and legal anesthetic, which helps them to copewith the trauma, and stress that arises from the nature of their job.Alcohol use is a convenient alternative which most law enforcementofficers use to channel negative feeling and stress emanating fromtheir job because they do not want to viewed as weak by seeking helpfor instance through counseling. In an interview conducted by Eiserer(2012) one homicide detective stated that “althoughduring the decades that he was on the force he had lost closefriends, seen hundreds of bodies and even killed a man who had triedto stab his partner he did not want to appear weak thus soughtcomfort from booze”.Over time alcoholism may lead to suicide and ruining of one’scareer (Pattersonet al., 2011).Alcoholism will eventually lead to arrest of an officer due todriving under the influence. Unlike traditionally when alcoholism inlaw enforcement was not reported or, dealt with advancement intechnology has led to a significant rise in arrests of lawenforcement officers driving under the influence. The rise ofalcoholism in law enforcement is also attributable to the attitudesand perceptions of officers towards this self-destructive behavior(Pattersonet al., 2011).Due to the acceptable culture of alcohol consumption, most lawenforcers do not realize the detrimental impact of alcohol dependencyon their professional as well as personal lives. In an interview of aCedar Hill (Dallas, Texas) officer who resigned after he was caughtdriving under the influence double the limit the legal limit hestated that “Ialways thought ain’t nothing going to happen to me”(Eiserer, 2012). Most law officers always overindulge in alcohol andclimb behind the wheel because they have an attitude that if they arecaught a colleague will let it them go with a warning (PERF, 2012).They do not realize that alcoholism not only poses a risk to theirlives, but also to the lives of other motorists and strainsrelationships. Law enforcement officers also tend to have a‘it-won’t-happen-to-me’attitude towards alcoholism largely due to lack of systems andprograms for dealing with alcoholics in the police force (Eiserer,2012). Alcohol use, has over the decades, been used in lawenforcement for bonding. In most instances, one will find lawenforcement officers in gathering even at the stations sharingstories about their day while drinking. Modern day Law EnforcementOfficers still gather in bars to unwind over drinks after theirshifts. The rising attention on alcoholism in law enforcement andadvance in technology that has led to installation of in car camerasofficers are more cautious about climbing behind the wheel orallowing a drunken friend to drive under the influence of alcohol(Willman, 2012)

Cooling(2002) argues that individuals cope with stress differently and thesame applies to law enforcement officers some officers becomesuicidal or turn to substance and alcohol abuse in order to cope. Lawenforcement officers are exposed to traumatic situations regular,which consequently cause intense stress. The stresses that policeofficers encounter in their daily lives tend to have a ripple effecton the officers personal lives. Law enforcement officers are exposedto diverse traumatic events including brutal murders and otherviolent crimes, which can have profound impact on the mental healthof a police officer. The situation is further exacerbated by the longworking hours, which strain the officer’s personal relationshipsleading to conflict and eventual breakup of their relationships, andmarriages that leave them vulnerable and lonely. For instance, a lawenforcement officer who encounters a brutal murder by a serial killermay become obsessive with arresting the killer neglecting his or herpersonal responsibilities to his or her family. Such a case may takeyears before it is closed and due to frustrations arising from thesame the officer may turn to alcohol to cope and eventually become analcoholic Willman, 2012).

Accordingto Stephens &amp Long (2000), the exposure to intense stress over aprolonged period of time causes an individual psychological growth toregress. The individual may become childish and highly irritablebecause of exposure to prolonged stress. Due to the chauvinist natureof law enforcement work, officers tend to keep negative feeling, painand strain emanating from their job bottled up thus suffering fromprolonged stress. Exposure to traumatic events such as murder andviolence in law enforcement tend to make officers insensitive. Lawenforcement officers have to separate their personal feeling andhuman instinct, which make an individual sensitive to human sufferingduring the performance of their roles and responsibilities. Overtime, the Law enforcement officers become insensitive to not only thesuffering of others but also their own suffering. In most instances,law enforcement officers turn to alcohol use, which is a generallyacceptable behavior with the law enforcement culture. The regular useof alcohol tends to cause dependency, which makes a law enforcementofficer incapable of performing his/her duties, and engaging inalcohol related misconduct (Willman, 2012 Pattersonet al., 2011)).

Therise of alcoholism in law enforcement is largely attributable to thelack of policies and producers on how officers should deal with otherofficers caught driving under the influence of alcohol. In thearticle, ‘Istopped another officer for drunk driving…what should I do?’Brown (1998) explores how police departments handle the problem ofalcoholism among law enforcement officers. Brown (1998) argues thatlaw enforcement is not invincible to alcoholism thus there is need todevelop policies and procedure on how officers should handle otherofficers driving under the influence of alcohol. Policeadministrators must recognize that the risk emanating from alcoholismis the lives of the officers as well as the public that they pose athreat to when they climb behind the wheel while intoxicated. Thelack of policies and procedures for dealing with alcoholism in thetask force causes a dilemma when another officer stops anotherofficer who is drinking under the influence. A law enforcementofficer who stops another officer due to driving under the influencetends to feel conflicted because he or she does not know how tohandle the situation. The law enforcement could let the drunkenofficer go with a warning only exacerbating the situation because theofficer may be an alcoholic. Although the officer who looks the otherway may have salvaged the drunken officer’s career and costassociated with legal battles he or she may have placed the life ofthe officer and the public at risk because of the ills associatedwith alcoholism (Parker,2012). Brown (1998) states that the lack of policies and procedures in lawenforcement for dealing with alcoholism causes police because lawabiding officers are conflicted between “doingwhat you know is right from one perspective, and just as surely knowdoing the opposite is right from another perspective”.By ignoring alcoholics in law enforcement, an opportunity for healingand recovery is lost. In most situations law enforcement officersrecovering from alcoholism report that they faced traumatic eventswhich forced them to face reality and take responsibility for theirirresponsible behavior by seeking help. The stringent laws aboutdrunk driving among law enforcement officers is also contributing tothe reluctance by officers to arrest their colleagues who areengaging in this vice. When a law enforcement officer assesses theseverity of drunk driving he or she may decide to just let theofficer driving while intoxicated go (Marks, 2001). According toCooling (2002), law enforcement officers that are arrested due todrunk driving could ruin their careers which not only affects theirbut also the lives of those dependent on them. Given that trafficofficers are required to use their personal judgment to determinewhether an individual is intoxicated above the legal limit in mostinstances when such a person their colleague they tend to beimpartial. As a result, in spite of the drinking culture among lawenforcement officers the number of officers arrested due to drunkdriving is considerably low (Parker,2012).

Thereare diverse interventionist strategies that can be used to addressthe problem of alcoholism in law enforcement such as employeeassistance programs, confidential hotlines, peer counseling, coachingand faith based programs (Parker,2012). Marks (2001) argues that employee assistance programs (EAP’s) arebeing widely used in the corporate sector and could be invariablyhelpful in law enforcement organizations to address the problem ofalcohol abuse and dependency. The employee assistance programs shouldbe geared towards preventing alcoholism. Essentially, the employeeassistance programs should be geared towards assessment of a lawenforcement officer’s risk of becoming alcohol dependent while theyare still in the police academy and follow up throughout theircareer. Based on the results of the risk assessments appropriatemeasures such as counseling should be customized and implemented foreach individual law enforcement officer. According to Genevese(n.d.), all police departments should have mental health cliniciansto provide therapy to willing law enforcement officers. Given thatlaw enforcement is ranked as the most stressful occupation in theUnited States, offering counseling services provides a healthy copingstrategy for the stress emanating from both internal and externalfactors in the environment (Violanti, 1999). Genevese (n.d.),further, argues that confidential helplines have led to a significantrise in the number of law enforcement officers struggling with theproblem of alcoholism. Confidential helplines provide anonymity,which enable law enforcement officers to seek help for mental healthproblems without being perceived as weak by fellow officers. Peercounseling has been widely adopted in most police departments as anintervention strategy for mental health problems arising from thenature of police work. Peer counseling has been effective inaddressing problems facing law enforcement officers primarily becauseit offers structures that provide recovery through support andcomfort from other officers who are undergoing the same experience.For instance, a recovery officer who finds himself on the verge ofslipping back to his old ways may call a fellow officer in thepeer-counseling group who will be able to offer assistance.Essentially, although mental health professionals have theeducational background to offer psychotherapy, many of them do nothave a police background thus, are not in a position to understandthe experiences of law enforcement that result in officers turning toalcohol as a coping strategy (Parker,2012). Coaching has also been proposed as an effective interventionstrategy for management of stress in law enforcement. The rationalebehind coaching as an intervention strategy for managing strategy inlaw enforcement is that the changing nature of police work presentsdiverse sources of stress that has negative impact on law enforcementofficers. Coaching involves the imparting the knowledge on stressmanagement and coping strategies and police administrators who inturn will coach the law enforcement officers in their department onthe same (Violanti, 1999). Coaching essentially provides bothpreventative and intervention measures for coping with stress andmanagement strategies for officers who are already affected by thestressful nature of police work. Religion provides a coping withstress associated with the police work. In Chicago,(Illinois)St. Michael’s House is a faith based organization not affiliated with a specific religion providing treatment programs to more than13, 000 law enforcement officers (Genevese, n.d.). The faith-basedprogram provides diverse services including alcohol dependency andsubstance treatment programs in addition to providing counselingservices for dealing with the traumatic events that law enforcementencounter while executing their roles and responsibilities(Canterbury,2011).Conclusion

Therise of alcoholism in law enforcement has received media attention,which has caused a significant increase in the number of scholarsresearching this problem in order to offer policy makers and lawenforcement administrators with most plausible solution to this vice.Modern day law enforcement officers are faced by a myriad of problemsarising from the nature of police work and environment in which theyoperate. As a result, law enforcement has reported a significant risein alcoholism, which occurs due to alcohol use as a de-stressorbecause it is a legal and cheap aesthetic. The problem of alcoholismin law enforcement is further fuelled by the police culture thatperpetuates alcohol use for socializing and bonding among colleagues.Given the risks, cost, and impact of alcoholism in law enforcement ithas become increasingly important to implement highly effectiveprograms and measures in order to address this problem.

Thereare diverse strategies, measures that have been proposed to addressthe problem of rise in alcoholism in law enforcement includingemployee assistance programs, confidential hotlines, peer counseling,coaching, and faith based programs. An effective prevention andintervention strategy that could be effective in combating the risein alcoholism in law enforcement must be geared towards changing thebeliefs and attitudes of officers towards alcohol, assessment of therisk factors for individuals and departments that could lead tostress and finally providing and implementing strategies that willhelp in coping with stress (Canterbury,2011).Essentially, in order to be effective in addressing the risealcoholism the solution problem must address the different facets ofthe problem and provide a solution that could lead to the much neededchange in how law enforcement are dealing with stress.

Assumptionthat lend weight to the final recommendation/solutions

  • It is assumed if that if cases of drinking under the influence among law enforcement officers are reported possible solutions can be identified to address this problem. Essentially, almost all cases of drinking under the influence of alcohol among law enforcement officers go unreported because it is officers within the same force that make the arrests thus are likely to charge a fellow officer.

  • It is assumed that if law enforcement administrators develop programs for addressing the occupational stressors in the police force the number of officers that are problem drinkers will reduce significantly.

  • It is assumed that law enforcement officers have higher rates of interpersonal problems largely due to the high rates of divorce reported.

  • It is assumed that the culture of drinking among police officers contributes greatly to the high rates of alcoholism in the police force largely because they engage in social and binge drinking very often which in turn may turn officers into habitual drinkers and subsequently alcohol dependent.

  1. Action Recommended

Itis recommended that law enforcement administrators implement theemployee assistance programs to address the rise of alcoholism facingthe police force (Canterbury,2011).Essentially, the employee assistance programs will offerindividualized solutions based on factors influencing alcohol abuseby addressing the root cause of the problem as well risk factors,which predisposes an officer to stress and consequently leading toalcohol use and abuse.

Toimplement the employee assistance programs the law enforcementadministrators in different departments should

  • Select the employee assistance Programs Implementation Committee

Theimplementation of the employee assistance programs should commencewith selection of a team including human resource managers anddepartmental heads in the law enforcement agencies, sheriffs’offices, DNR, State Patrol heads, and Correction heads. The committeewill be in charge of overseeing the implementation of the employeeassistance programs.

  • Develop and document the employee assistance programs policies

Itis critical to develop and document the employee assistance programsclearly articulating the guidelines, which will facilitate theimplementation of the program. Additionally, the employee assistanceprograms will provide guidelines regarding various issues such asconfidentiality and privacy concern, which have a huge impact on theofficer’s participation in the program.

  • Decide whether to use external or, in-house professionals to implement the employee assistance programs

TheEmployee Assistance Program committee must make a decision on whetherto use external or, in-house professionals to implement the programs.The decision to either use external or, in-house professionals willbe influenced by resources at the disposal of a police department,time it will take for the program to be implemented and officer’sperception towards privacy and confidentiality.

  • Establish a plan for the implementation of the employee assistance program

Theestablishment of a plan is imperative for the successfulimplementation of any program. In this sense, the Employee AssistanceProgram committee should establish and clearly articulate a plan forthe implementation of the program. The plan should clearly articulatethe purpose and objective of the program, the target employees,procedures including scheduling for appointments with employees andpolicies to guide the implementation process.

  • Launch and Communication to all employees

Thepolice administrators should officially launch the employeeassistance program. During the launch of the employee assistanceprogram the police administrators should communicate all the issuesregarding the program and address any concerns that the lawenforcement have about it. The official launch and communication ofthe employee assistance program is critical because will ensure thatthe program will receive support from the law enforcement andencourage their participation in the same. In essence, the lawenforcement officers will understand that the program is gearedtowards helping them to cope with work stress and address individualproblems they could be dealing because of the same.

  • Monitoring and assessment of success of the Employee Assistance Program

TheEmployee Assistance Program committee should monitor theimplementation of the program to ensure that it going according toplan (Canterbury,2011).After six months, the Employee Assistance Program committee shouldassess the success of the program. The assessment of the success ofthe program should be geared towards participation of law enforcementofficers in the program and the extent to which it is helping themcope with work stress and problems associated with the same includingalcoholism.

Thebudget and resources will vary depending on the Employee AssistanceProgram model implemented. Police departments that use in houseprofessionals will incur considerably lower expenses in comparison topolice departments that use external professionals for the same.However, using entering into a contract with Licensed Psychologistswho have an insurance cover is the most effective method of dealingwith the issue.

References

Brown,H. (1998). Istopped another officer for drunk driving…what should I do?Retrieved from,&lthttp://www.geocities.com/stressline_com/bogshrink8.html&gt July14, 2014

Thisarticle provides comprehensive details of the cases of arrest ofpolice officers involved in drunk driving. Brown(1998) explores the circumstances that police officers face whendealing with such arrests. The problem is the dilemma that prudentpolice officers find themselves into when dealing with the arrests.According to Brown, the situation requires non-punitive measures ofdealing with the situation in a balanced and well disciplined manner.This article is rich with detailed information on the problem ofdrunken police officers that is worth the attention of the research.

Canterbury,C. (2011). TheFuture of Law Enforcement in the United States of America.National Fraternal Order of Police.

Thearticle provides the organizational structure in the Law EnforcementAgencies across America, and the way lack of effective structure hasallowed officers to engage in alcohol. The article provides someguidelines and strategies that the government can employ in a bid toprotect Law Enforcement Officers, which may greatly aid in reducingthe high incidence rate of alcohol use and other substance. Althoughthe paper is not primarily about alcohol use among officers, itprovides an extensive plan for averting alcohol use among officersthus, it is an important element in discussing the issue.

Cooling,N. (2002). Police! TRAUMA! action! TheSafety &amp Health Practitioner,20(4), 34-36.

Thisjournal discusses the circumstances faced by the police in regard tothe psychological problem of trauma. In the journal, Cooling (2002)describes the policing environment and the traumatic aspects thatderail the smoothness of the police officers in their duty. Inaddition, Cooling explores the impact of trauma on the effectivenessof the police officers to their duty. Consequently, Cooling discussesthe important steps and actions that can help the police force tosolve such situations. This journal presents valuable information forthe topic since alcoholism is an aspect of trauma in law enforcement.

Eiserer,T. (2012). Theydrink when they are blue: Stress, peer pressure contributes topolice’s alcohol culture. Retrievedfrom,&lthttp://www.dallasnews.com/investigations/headlines/20120115-they-drink-when-theyre-blue-stress-peer-pressure-contribute-to-polices-alcohol-culture.ece&gtJuly 14, 2014

Thisarticle explores the most common causes of alcoholism among themembers of the police force. In the article, Eiserer discusses theinfluence of the peers, and stress as the most common factors thatresult to alcoholism. In addition, the article explores the reasonssuch as on-job experiences and confidentiality of the job, as reasonswhy most police officers are easily affected by alcoholism. Thisarticle provides critical information on the two cases of policedrunkenness while in service. This makes the article a valuablesource of information on the research topic.

Genevese,J. (n.d.). AlcoholismAmong Law Enforcement Personnel: Its Unique Challenges.Retrieved from, &lthttp://www.milestonegroupnj.com/?page_id=348&gtJuly 14, 2014

Inthis research, Genovese explores the challenges that face the lawenforcement due to the problem of alcoholism among the officers.Genovese discusses the unique challenges that face the lawenforcement since alcoholism presents cases against the people whoshould prevent the vice. The research provides valuable data on theprevalence of the alcoholism cases and its costs on the United Stateseconomy. Through well discussed nature of the problem and factorsbehind the alcoholism problem in the police, Genovese furtherexplores the impact of the vice and the solutions

Lindsay,V., (2008). Police officers and their alcohol consumption: Should webe concerned. PoliceQuarterly,11 (1), 74-87.

Inthis journal, Lindsay (2008) researches on the problem of alcoholconsumption by police officers in the midst of a demanding workforce.Lindsay explores the reasons for the concern of the challenge ofalcoholism in the police force by discussing the rationale behind theconcern. Using facts about the status of consumption to describe thescenario presented by the challenge. This makes the research byLindsay a valuable source of information about the research topic ofalcoholism in the law enforcement.

Marks,A. (2001). Forpolice, attitudes toward drinking change A new york officer`salcohol-related accident may not be indicative of the push to helpofficers. The Christian ScienceMonitor,Retrieved from,&lthttp://search.proquest.com/docview/405656511?accountid=45049&gtJuly 14, 2014

Inthe article, Marks (2001) discusses the critical issues that relateto the attitudes of the police towards the problem of alcoholism. Thearticle discuses the case of a police officer causing accident whiledrunk to introduce the solution of attitude changes within the policeforce. In addition, this article presents the importance of the wholepolice force adapting to the change in attitude as the mostappropriate solutions. The article provides of the positive changesin the police force in terms of reduced alcoholism, which makes thearticle useful to research.

Parker,S. W. W. (2012). Dealingwith Stress in Law Enforcement: Alcoholism, Divorce, and Suicide.Fort Smith Police Department.

Althoughthis article deals primarily deals with how law enforcers deal withstress, alcohol use among the officers is a major issue in thearticle. Parker provides that most officers engage in alcohol toavert and mitigate stress, but the use turns to an obsession andlater an issue. Parker asserts that alcohol has permeated in the LawEnforcement culture and existence mostly due to lack of programs thateducate people on alcohol use. As such, the article proposes severalprograms that stakeholders can use to avert stress among officers anddiscourage alcohol use among them. In this regards, the article is anindispensable tool throughout the paper in revealing themisconceptions about alcohol, its negative effects, and policies ofsafeguarding the welfare of the officers in a bid to prevent alcoholuse.

Patterson,G. T., Chung, I. W., &amp Swan, P. G. (2011). The Effects of StressManagement Interventions among Police Officers and Recruits. CampbellSystematic Reviews2012 (7) 1-53.

Thearticle provides an analysis on why stress has devastating effects onthe lives of police officers. In fact, the article asserts that lackof interventionists’ approaches to avert stress among officers hasled to the high level of alcohol use among officers. As such, thearticle proposes some measures that administrators can use to avertstress, which in turn result to low levels of alcohol abuse amongofficers. Patterson et al. (2011) offers a descriptive analysis onthe effect of alcohol on officers and propose measures to avert suchbehaviors.

Suresh,R. S., Anantharaman, R. N., Angusamy, A., &amp Ganesan, J. (2013).Sources of job stress in police work in a developing country.InternationalJournal of Business and Management,8(13), 102-110. Retrieved from,&lthttp://search.proquest.com/docview/1418426070?accountid=45049&gtJuly 14, 2014

Thisarticle explores the cause of stress in a typical police setting,especially in developing countries. Suresh et al (2013) describes thecauses of stress as the main elements that put police officers insituations that compromise them to take any solution that comesalong. Moreover, this article discusses the impacts of the factors onthe efficiency of police officers. Since stress is concluded to be amajor cause of alcoholism among the police, this article providesinformation that best suits the research topic.

Stephens,C., &amp Long, N. (2000). Communication with police supervisors andpeers as a buffer of work-related traumatic stress. Journalof Organizational Behavior,21(4), 407-424.

Thisarticle provides information on the importance of communication in atypical setting of the police force, as it relates to alcoholism.According to the article, communication is important to allowtraumatized or stressed-up officers to converse and share traumaticor stressful experiences with others. Stephens and Long explore theneed for communication in-between the levels of the policedepartments particularly between the senior levels and juniorlevels. This makes the article important for research.

ThePolice Executive Research Forum (2012).PERF Town Hall Meeting. Police Chiefs Discuss a Tough Issue: Alcoholand Drug Abuse by Officers.Retrieved from,&lthttp://www.policeforum.org/assets/docs/Subject_to_Debate/Debate2012/debate_2012_sepoct.pdf&gtJuly 14, 2014

Thearticle explores the importance of the senior members of the policedepartments engaging in open talks with the members of the service.Through the description of the PERF Town Hall Meeting, the articleprovides important details the show the effectiveness ofcommunication in reducing the problem of alcoholism by reducingstress. This makes the article valuable in addition to being aninitiative of the police that makes the solution practical.

Violanti,J. M., (1999). Alcohol abuse in policing: Prevention strategies. FBILaw Enforcement Bulletin,16-20.

Inthis journal, Violanti discusses the situation of alcoholism withinthe policing departments and the impact the problem has on theefficiency of the members. The discussion provides aspects of thecauses of the problem and the need for actions focused on thesolutions. More importantly, the journal provides the strategies thatcan be adopted to prevent the occurrence of alcoholism in thepolicing service. This makes the journal a solution-based source thatprovides important Knowledge on alcoholism in the law enforcementagencies and the possible solutions.

Violanti.J. M. et al. (2011). Policeand Alcohol Use: A Descriptive Analysis and Associations with StressOutcomes. AmericanJournal of CriminalJustice. 1(36)344-356

Thepaper identifies the main aspects that surround alcohol use, stress,occupations, and personal lives of officers. The article asserts thatalcoholabuse is a major problem in police work thus, it offers an analysison alcohol use and its correlation to other issues that affect workin Law Enforcement Agencies. Finally, the article examines thepsychosomatic consequences of stress linked with the abuse andquantity of alcohol consumed by police officers. The article providesan interesting account of alcohol use among officers thus, it is animportant material in discussing alcohol use among officers.

Willman,E. A. (2012). Alcohol Use among Law Enforcement. Journalof Law Enforcement,2(3),1-4. Retrieved August 7, 2014, fromhttp://www.jghcs.info/index.php/l/article/download/150/147

Thisarticle provides extensive analysis on alcohol abuse and dependencyamong law enforcers. The article discusses how alcohol has become apart of police culture, mostly to deal with stress. Besides, thearticle provides an extensive correlation on alcohol, stressors,trauma, violence, and suicide. Willman agrees that Law Enforcement isa demanding occupation and, perhaps, this is one of the factor whypolice officers abuse alcohol. The article provides an analysis onwhy police officers engage in alcohol, measures of mitigating alcoholuse, causes of alcohol use among officers, and ways of avertingalcohol among officers. In this regards, the article is an importantpart of the discursive analysis that the paper engages.